10. Differential Calculus

We now consider the formalization of notions from analysis, starting with differentiation in this chapter and turning integration and measure theory in the next. In Section 10.1, we stick with the setting of functions from the real numbers to the real numbers, which is familiar from any introductory calculus class. In Section 10.2, we then consider the notion of a derivative in a much broader setting.

10.1. Elementary Differential Calculus

Let f be a function from the reals to the reals. There is a difference between talking about the derivative of f at a single point and talking about the derivative function. In Mathlib, the first notion is represented as follows.

open Real

/-- The sin function has derivative 1 at 0. -/
example : HasDerivAt sin 1 0 := by simpa using hasDerivAt_sin 0

We can also express that f is differentiable at a point without specifying its derivative there by writing DifferentiableAt . We specify explicitly because in a slightly more general context, when talking about functions from to , we want to be able to distinguish between being differentiable in the real sense and being differentiable in the sense of the complex derivative.

example (x : ) : DifferentiableAt  sin x :=
  (hasDerivAt_sin x).differentiableAt

It would be inconvenient to have to provide a proof of differentiability every time we want to refer to a derivative. So Mathlib provides a function deriv f : that is defined for any function f : but is defined to take the value 0 at any point where f is not differentiable.

example {f :   } {x a : } (h : HasDerivAt f a x) : deriv f x = a :=

example {f :   } {x : } (h : ¬DifferentiableAt  f x) : deriv f x = 0 :=
  deriv_zero_of_not_differentiableAt h

Of course there are many lemmas about deriv that do require differentiability assumptions. For instance, you should think about a counterexample to the next lemma without the differentiability assumptions.

example {f g :   } {x : } (hf : DifferentiableAt  f x) (hg : DifferentiableAt  g x) :
    deriv (f + g) x = deriv f x + deriv g x :=
  deriv_add hf hg

Interestingly, however, there are statements that can avoid differentiability assumptions by taking advantage of the fact that the value of deriv defaults to zero when the function is not differentiable. So making sense of the following statement requires knowing the precise definition of deriv.

example {f :   } {a : } (h : IsLocalMin f a) : deriv f a = 0 :=

We can even state Rolle’s theorem without any differentiability assumptions, which seems even weirder.

open Set

example {f :   } {a b : } (hab : a < b) (hfc : ContinuousOn f (Icc a b)) (hfI : f a = f b) :
     c  Ioo a b, deriv f c = 0 :=
  exists_deriv_eq_zero hab hfc hfI

Of course, this trick does not work for the general mean value theorem.

example (f :   ) {a b : } (hab : a < b) (hf : ContinuousOn f (Icc a b))
    (hf' : DifferentiableOn  f (Ioo a b)) :  c  Ioo a b, deriv f c = (f b - f a) / (b - a) :=
  exists_deriv_eq_slope f hab hf hf'

Lean can automatically compute some simple derivatives using the simp tactic.

example : deriv (fun x :   x ^ 5) 6 = 5 * 6 ^ 4 := by simp

example : deriv sin π = -1 := by simp

10.2. Differential Calculus in Normed Spaces

10.2.1. Normed spaces

Differentiation can be generalized beyond using the notion of a normed vector space, which encapsulates both direction and distance. We start with the notion of a normed group, which as an additive commutative group equipped with a real-valued norm function satisfying the following conditions.

variable {E : Type*} [NormedAddCommGroup E]

example (x : E) : 0  x :=
  norm_nonneg x

example {x : E} : x = 0  x = 0 :=

example (x y : E) : x + y  x + y :=
  norm_add_le x y

Every normed space is a metric space with distance function \(d(x, y) = \| x - y \|\), and hence it is also a topological space. Lean and Mathlib know this.

example : MetricSpace E := by infer_instance

example {X : Type*} [TopologicalSpace X] {f : X  E} (hf : Continuous f) :
    Continuous fun x  f x :=

In order to use the notion of a norm with concepts from linear algebra, we add the assumption NormedSpace E on top of NormedAddGroup E. This stipulates that E is a vector space over and that scalar multiplication satisfies the following condition.

variable [NormedSpace  E]

example (a : ) (x : E) : a  x = |a| * x :=
  norm_smul a x

A complete normed space is known as a Banach space. Every finite-dimensional vector space is complete.

example [FiniteDimensional  E] : CompleteSpace E := by infer_instance

In all the previous examples, we used the real numbers as the base field. More generally, we can make sense of calculus with a vector space over any nontrivially normed field. These are fields that are equipped with a real-valued norm that is multiplicative and has the property that not every element has norm zero or one (equivalently, there is an element whose norm is bigger than one).

example (𝕜 : Type*) [NontriviallyNormedField 𝕜] (x y : 𝕜) : x * y = x * y :=
  norm_mul x y

example (𝕜 : Type*) [NontriviallyNormedField 𝕜] :  x : 𝕜, 1 < x :=
  NormedField.exists_one_lt_norm 𝕜

A finite-dimensional vector space over a nontrivially normed field is complete as long as the field itself is complete.

example (𝕜 : Type*) [NontriviallyNormedField 𝕜] (E : Type*) [NormedAddCommGroup E]
    [NormedSpace 𝕜 E] [CompleteSpace 𝕜] [FiniteDimensional 𝕜 E] : CompleteSpace E :=
  FiniteDimensional.complete 𝕜 E

10.2.2. Continuous linear maps

We now turn to the morphisms in the category of normed spaces, namely, continuous linear maps. In Mathlib, the type of 𝕜-linear continuous maps between normed spaces E and F is written E →L[𝕜] F. They are implemented as bundled maps, which means that an element of this type a structure that that includes the function itself and the properties of being linear and continuous. Lean will insert a coercion so that a continuous linear map can be treated as a function.

variable {𝕜 : Type*} [NontriviallyNormedField 𝕜] {E : Type*} [NormedAddCommGroup E]
  [NormedSpace 𝕜 E] {F : Type*} [NormedAddCommGroup F] [NormedSpace 𝕜 F]

example : E L[𝕜] E :=
  ContinuousLinearMap.id 𝕜 E

example (f : E L[𝕜] F) : E  F :=

example (f : E L[𝕜] F) : Continuous f :=

example (f : E L[𝕜] F) (x y : E) : f (x + y) = f x + f y :=
  f.map_add x y

example (f : E L[𝕜] F) (a : 𝕜) (x : E) : f (a  x) = a  f x :=
  f.map_smul a x

Continuous linear maps have an operator norm that is characterized by the following properties.

variable (f : E L[𝕜] F)

example (x : E) : f x  f * x :=
  f.le_op_norm x

example {M : } (hMp : 0  M) (hM :  x, f x  M * x) : f  M :=
  f.op_norm_le_bound hMp hM

There is also a notion of bundled continuous linear isomorphism. Their type of such isomorphisms is E ≃L[𝕜] F.

As a challenging exercise, you can prove the Banach-Steinhaus theorem, also known as the Uniform Boundedness Principle. The principle states that a family of continuous linear maps from a Banach space into a normed space is pointwise bounded, then the norms of these linear maps are uniformly bounded. The main ingredient is Baire’s theorem nonempty_interior_of_iUnion_of_closed. (You proved a version of this in the topology chapter.) Minor ingredients include continuous_linear_map.op_norm_le_of_shell, interior_subset and interior_iInter_subset and is_closed_le.

variable {𝕜 : Type*} [NontriviallyNormedField 𝕜] {E : Type*} [NormedAddCommGroup E]
  [NormedSpace 𝕜 E] {F : Type*} [NormedAddCommGroup F] [NormedSpace 𝕜 F]

open Metric

example {ι : Type*} [CompleteSpace E] {g : ι  E L[𝕜] F} (h :  x,  C,  i, g i x  C) :
     C',  i, g i  C' := by
  -- sequence of subsets consisting of those `x : E` with norms `‖g i x‖` bounded by `n`
  let e :   Set E := fun n   i : ι, { x : E | g i x  n }
  -- each of these sets is closed
  have hc :  n : , IsClosed (e n)
  -- the union is the entire space; this is where we use `h`
  have hU : ( n : , e n) = univ
  /- apply the Baire category theorem to conclude that for some `m : ℕ`,
       `e m` contains some `x` -/
  obtain m, x, hx :  m,  x, x  interior (e m) := sorry
  obtain ε, ε_pos,  :  ε > 0, ball x ε  interior (e m) := sorry
  obtain k, hk :  k : 𝕜, 1 < k := sorry
  -- show all elements in the ball have norm bounded by `m` after applying any `g i`
  have real_norm_le :  z  ball x ε,  (i : ι), g i z  m
  have εk_pos : 0 < ε / k := sorry
  refine' ⟨(m + m : ) / (ε / k), fun i  ContinuousLinearMap.op_norm_le_of_shell ε_pos _ hk _

10.2.3. Asymptotic comparisons

Defining differentiability also requires asymptotic comparisons. Mathlib has an extensive library covering the big O and little o relations, whose definitions are shown below. Opening the asymptotics locale allows us to use the corresponding notation. Here we will only use little o to define differentiability.

open Asymptotics

example {α : Type*} {E : Type*} [NormedGroup E] {F : Type*} [NormedGroup F] (c : )
    (l : Filter α) (f : α  E) (g : α  F) : IsBigOWith c l f g  ∀ᶠ x in l, f x  c * g x :=

example {α : Type*} {E : Type*} [NormedGroup E] {F : Type*} [NormedGroup F]
    (l : Filter α) (f : α  E) (g : α  F) : f =O[l] g   C, IsBigOWith C l f g :=

example {α : Type*} {E : Type*} [NormedGroup E] {F : Type*} [NormedGroup F]
    (l : Filter α) (f : α  E) (g : α  F) : f =o[l] g   C > 0, IsBigOWith C l f g :=

example {α : Type*} {E : Type*} [NormedAddCommGroup E] (l : Filter α) (f g : α  E) :
    f ~[l] g  (f - g) =o[l] g :=

10.2.4. Differentiability

We are now ready to discuss differentiable functions between normed spaces. In analogy the elementary one-dimensional, Mathlib defines a predicate HasFDerivAt and a function fderiv. Here the letter “f” stands for Fréchet.

open Topology

variable {𝕜 : Type*} [NontriviallyNormedField 𝕜] {E : Type*} [NormedAddCommGroup E]
  [NormedSpace 𝕜 E] {F : Type*} [NormedAddCommGroup F] [NormedSpace 𝕜 F]

example (f : E  F) (f' : E L[𝕜] F) (x₀ : E) :
    HasFDerivAt f f' x₀  (fun x  f x - f x₀ - f' (x - x₀)) =o[𝓝 x₀] fun x  x - x₀ :=
  hasFDerivAtFilter_iff_isLittleO ..

example (f : E  F) (f' : E L[𝕜] F) (x₀ : E) (hff' : HasFDerivAt f f' x₀) : fderiv 𝕜 f x₀ = f' :=

We also have iterated derivatives that take values in the type of multilinear maps E [×n]→L[𝕜] F, and we have continuously differential functions. The type WithTop is with an additional element that is bigger than every natural number. So \(\mathcal{C}^\infty\) functions are functions f that satisfy ContDiff 𝕜 f.

example (n : ) (f : E  F) : E  E[×n]L[𝕜] F :=
  iteratedFDeriv 𝕜 n f

example (n : WithTop ) {f : E  F} :
    ContDiff 𝕜 n f 
      ( m : , (m : WithTop )  n  Continuous fun x  iteratedFDeriv 𝕜 m f x) 
         m : , (m : WithTop ) < n  Differentiable 𝕜 fun x  iteratedFDeriv 𝕜 m f x :=

There is a stricter notion of differentiability called HasStrictFDerivAt, which is used in the statement of the inverse function theorem and the statement of the implicit function theorem, both of which are in Mathlib. Over or , continuously differentiable functions are strictly differentiable.

example {𝕂 : Type*} [IsROrC 𝕂] {E : Type*} [NormedAddCommGroup E] [NormedSpace 𝕂 E] {F : Type*}
    [NormedAddCommGroup F] [NormedSpace 𝕂 F] {f : E  F} {x : E} {n : WithTop }
    (hf : ContDiffAt 𝕂 n f x) (hn : 1  n) : HasStrictFDerivAt f (fderiv 𝕂 f x) x :=
  hf.hasStrictFDerivAt hn

The local inverse theorem is stated using an operation that produces an inverse function from a function and the assumptions that the function is strictly differentiable at a point a and that its derivative is an isomorphism.

The first example below gets this local inverse. The next one states that it is indeed a local inverse from the left and from the right, and that it is strictly differentiable.

section LocalInverse
variable [CompleteSpace E] {f : E  F} {f' : E L[𝕜] F} {a : E}

example (hf : HasStrictFDerivAt f (f' : E L[𝕜] F) a) : F  E :=
  HasStrictFDerivAt.localInverse f f' a hf

example (hf : HasStrictFDerivAt f (f' : E L[𝕜] F) a) :
    ∀ᶠ x in 𝓝 a, hf.localInverse f f' a (f x) = x :=

example (hf : HasStrictFDerivAt f (f' : E L[𝕜] F) a) :
    ∀ᶠ x in 𝓝 (f a), f (hf.localInverse f f' a x) = x :=

example {f : E  F} {f' : E L[𝕜] F} {a : E}
  (hf : HasStrictFDerivAt f (f' : E L[𝕜] F) a) :
    HasStrictFDerivAt (HasStrictFDerivAt.localInverse f f' a hf) (f'.symm : F L[𝕜] E) (f a) :=
  HasStrictFDerivAt.to_localInverse hf

end LocalInverse

This has been only a quick tour of the differential calculus in Mathlib. The library contains many variations that we have not discussed. For example, you may want to use one-sided derivatives in the one-dimensional setting. The means to do so are found in Mathlib in a more general context; see HasFDerivWithinAt or the even more general HasFDerivAtFilter.