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mathlib-archive / 100-theorems-list.83_friendship_graphs

# The Friendship Theorem #

## Definitions and Statement #

• A friendship graph is one in which any two distinct vertices have exactly one neighbor in common
• A politician, at least in the context of this problem, is a vertex in a graph which is adjacent to every other vertex.
• The friendship theorem (Erdős, Rényi, Sós 1966) states that every finite friendship graph has a politician.

## Proof outline #

The proof revolves around the theory of adjacency matrices, although some steps could equivalently be phrased in terms of counting walks.

• Assume G is a finite friendship graph.
• First we show that any two nonadjacent vertices have the same degree
• Assume for contradiction that G does not have a politician.
• Conclude from the last two points that G is d-regular for some d : ℕ.
• Show that G has d ^ 2 - d + 1 vertices.
• By casework, show that if d = 0, 1, 2, then G has a politician.
• If 3 ≤ d, let p be a prime factor of d - 1.
• If A is the adjacency matrix of G with entries in ℤ/pℤ, we show that A ^ p has trace 1.
• This gives a contradiction, as A has trace 0, and thus A ^ p has trace 0.

## References #

def theorems_100.friendship {V : Type u} (G : simple_graph V) [fintype V] :
Prop

This property of a graph is the hypothesis of the friendship theorem: every pair of nonadjacent vertices has exactly one common friend, a vertex to which both are adjacent.

Equations
def theorems_100.exists_politician {V : Type u} (G : simple_graph V) :
Prop

A politician is a vertex that is adjacent to all other vertices.

Equations
theorem theorems_100.friendship.adj_matrix_sq_of_ne {V : Type u} (R : Type v) [semiring R] [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} (hG : theorems_100.friendship G) {v w : V} (hvw : v w) :
^ 2) v w = 1

One characterization of a friendship graph is that there is exactly one walk of length 2 between distinct vertices. These walks are counted in off-diagonal entries of the square of the adjacency matrix, so for a friendship graph, those entries are all 1.

theorem theorems_100.friendship.adj_matrix_pow_three_of_not_adj {V : Type u} (R : Type v) [semiring R] [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} (hG : theorems_100.friendship G) {v w : V} (non_adj : ¬G.adj v w) :
^ 3) v w = (G.degree v)

This calculation amounts to counting the number of length 3 walks between nonadjacent vertices. We use it to show that nonadjacent vertices have equal degrees.

theorem theorems_100.friendship.degree_eq_of_not_adj {V : Type u} [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} (hG : theorems_100.friendship G) {v w : V} (hvw : ¬G.adj v w) :
G.degree v = G.degree w

As v and w not being adjacent implies degree G v = ((G.adj_matrix R) ^ 3) v w and degree G w = ((G.adj_matrix R) ^ 3) v w, the degrees are equal if ((G.adj_matrix R) ^ 3) v w = ((G.adj_matrix R) ^ 3) w v

This is true as the adjacency matrix is symmetric.

theorem theorems_100.friendship.adj_matrix_sq_of_regular {V : Type u} {R : Type v} [semiring R] [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} {d : } (hG : theorems_100.friendship G) (hd : G.is_regular_of_degree d) :
= λ (v w : V), ite (v = w) d 1

Let A be the adjacency matrix of a graph G. If G is a friendship graph, then all of the off-diagonal entries of A^2 are 1. If G is d-regular, then all of the diagonal entries of A^2 are d. Putting these together determines A^2 exactly for a d-regular friendship graph.

theorem theorems_100.friendship.adj_matrix_sq_mod_p_of_regular {V : Type u} [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} {d : } (hG : theorems_100.friendship G) {p : } (dmod : d = 1) (hd : G.is_regular_of_degree d) :
^ 2 = λ (_x _x : V), 1

If G is a friendship graph without a politician (a vertex adjacent to all others), then it is regular. We have shown that nonadjacent vertices of a friendship graph have the same degree, and if there isn't a politician, we can show this for adjacent vertices by finding a vertex neither is adjacent to, and then using transitivity.

theorem theorems_100.friendship.card_of_regular {V : Type u} [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} {d : } (hG : theorems_100.friendship G) [nonempty V] (hd : G.is_regular_of_degree d) :
d + - 1) = d * d

Let A be the adjacency matrix of a d-regular friendship graph, and let v be a vector all of whose components are 1. Then v is an eigenvector of A ^ 2, and we can compute the eigenvalue to be d * d, or as d + (fintype.card V - 1), so those quantities must be equal.

This essentially means that the graph has d ^ 2 - d + 1 vertices.

theorem theorems_100.friendship.card_mod_p_of_regular {V : Type u} [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} {d : } (hG : theorems_100.friendship G) [nonempty V] {p : } (dmod : d = 1) (hd : G.is_regular_of_degree d) :

The size of a d-regular friendship graph is 1 mod (d-1), and thus 1 mod p for a factor p ∣ d-1.

theorem theorems_100.friendship.adj_matrix_sq_mul_const_one_of_regular {V : Type u} {R : Type v} [semiring R] [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} {d : } (hd : G.is_regular_of_degree d) :
* λ (_x _x : V), 1) = λ (_x _x : V), d
theorem theorems_100.friendship.adj_matrix_mul_const_one_mod_p_of_regular {V : Type u} [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} {d p : } (dmod : d = 1) (hd : G.is_regular_of_degree d) :
G * λ (_x _x : V), 1) = λ (_x _x : V), 1
theorem theorems_100.friendship.adj_matrix_pow_mod_p_of_regular {V : Type u} [fintype V] {G : simple_graph V} {d : } (hG : theorems_100.friendship G) {p : } (dmod : d = 1) (hd : G.is_regular_of_degree d) {k : } (hk : 2 k) :
^ k = λ (_x _x : V), 1

Modulo a factor of d-1, the square and all higher powers of the adjacency matrix of a d-regular friendship graph reduce to the matrix whose entries are all 1.

This is the main proof. Assuming that 3 ≤ d, we take p to be a prime factor of d-1. Then the pth power of the adjacency matrix of a d-regular friendship graph must have trace 1 mod p, but we can also show that the trace must be the pth power of the trace of the original adjacency matrix, which is 0, a contradiction.

If d ≤ 1, a d-regular friendship graph has at most one vertex, which is trivially a politician.

If d = 2, a d-regular friendship graph has 3 vertices, so it must be complete graph, and all the vertices are politicians.

Friendship theorem: We wish to show that a friendship graph has a politician (a vertex adjacent to all others). We proceed by contradiction, and assume the graph has no politician. We have already proven that a friendship graph with no politician is d-regular for some d, and now we do casework on d. If the degree is at most 2, we observe by casework that it has a politician anyway. If the degree is at least 3, the graph cannot exist.