mathlib documentation

measure_theory.constructions.borel_space

Borel (measurable) space #

Main definitions #

Main statements #

def borel (α : Type u) [topological_space α] :

measurable_space structure generated by topological_space.

Equations
theorem borel_eq_top_of_encodable {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [t1_space α] [encodable α] :
theorem borel_comap {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} {f : α → β} {t : topological_space β} :
theorem continuous.borel_measurable {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {f : α → β} (hf : continuous f) :
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]

In a borel_space all open sets are measurable.

@[protected, instance]
def subtype.borel_space {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [hα : borel_space α] (s : set α) :
@[protected, instance]
theorem measurable_set.induction_on_open {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] {C : set α → Prop} (h_open : ∀ (U : set α), is_open UC U) (h_compl : ∀ (t : set α), measurable_set tC tC t) (h_union : ∀ (f : set α), pairwise (disjoint on f)(∀ (i : ), measurable_set (f i))(∀ (i : ), C (f i))C (⋃ (i : ), f i)) ⦃t : set α⦄ :
measurable_set tC t
theorem is_Gδ.measurable_set {α : Type u_1} {s : set α} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] (h : is_Gδ s) :
theorem measurable_set_of_continuous_at {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] {β : Type u_2} [emetric_space β] (f : α → β) :
theorem measurable_of_is_open {γ : Type u_3} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] [measurable_space δ] {f : δ → γ} (hf : ∀ (s : set γ), is_open smeasurable_set (f ⁻¹' s)) :
theorem measurable_of_is_closed {γ : Type u_3} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] [measurable_space δ] {f : δ → γ} (hf : ∀ (s : set γ), is_closed smeasurable_set (f ⁻¹' s)) :
theorem measurable_of_is_closed' {γ : Type u_3} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] [measurable_space δ] {f : δ → γ} (hf : ∀ (s : set γ), is_closed ss.nonemptys set.univmeasurable_set (f ⁻¹' s)) :
@[protected, instance]

If s is a measurable set, then 𝓝[s] a is a measurably generated filter for each a. This cannot be an instance because it depends on a non-instance hs : measurable_set s.

@[protected, instance]
def pi.opens_measurable_space_encodable {ι : Type u_1} {π : ι → Type u_2} [encodable ι] [t' : Π (i : ι), topological_space (π i)] [Π (i : ι), measurable_space (π i)] [∀ (i : ι), topological_space.second_countable_topology (π i)] [∀ (i : ι), opens_measurable_space (π i)] :
opens_measurable_space (Π (i : ι), π i)
@[protected, instance]
def pi.opens_measurable_space_fintype {ι : Type u_1} {π : ι → Type u_2} [fintype ι] [t' : Π (i : ι), topological_space (π i)] [Π (i : ι), measurable_space (π i)] [∀ (i : ι), topological_space.second_countable_topology (π i)] [∀ (i : ι), opens_measurable_space (π i)] :
opens_measurable_space (Π (i : ι), π i)
theorem measure_interior_of_null_bdry {α' : Type u_6} [topological_space α'] [measurable_space α'] {μ : measure_theory.measure α'} {s : set α'} (h_nullbdry : μ (frontier s) = 0) :
μ (interior s) = μ s
theorem measure_closure_of_null_bdry {α' : Type u_6} [topological_space α'] [measurable_space α'] {μ : measure_theory.measure α'} {s : set α'} (h_nullbdry : μ (frontier s) = 0) :
μ (closure s) = μ s
@[simp]
theorem bsupr_measure_Iic {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [preorder α] [order_closed_topology α] {μ : measure_theory.measure α} {s : set α} (hsc : s.countable) (hst : ∀ (x : α), ∃ (y : α) (H : y s), x y) (hdir : directed_on has_le.le s) :
(⨆ (x : α) (H : x s), μ (set.Iic x)) = μ set.univ
theorem measurable_set_le {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space δ] [partial_order α] [order_closed_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : δ → α} (hf : measurable f) (hg : measurable g) :
measurable_set {a : δ | f a g a}
theorem measurable_set_lt {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_closed_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : δ → α} (hf : measurable f) (hg : measurable g) :
measurable_set {a : δ | f a < g a}
theorem generate_from_Ico_mem_le_borel {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [linear_order α] [order_closed_topology α] (s t : set α) :
measurable_space.generate_from {S : set α | ∃ (l : α) (H : l s) (u : α) (H : u t) (h : l < u), set.Ico l u = S} borel α
theorem dense.borel_eq_generate_from_Ico_mem_aux {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {s : set α} (hd : dense s) (hbot : ∀ (x : α), is_bot xx s) (hIoo : ∀ (x y : α), x < yset.Ioo x y = y s) :
borel α = measurable_space.generate_from {S : set α | ∃ (l : α) (H : l s) (u : α) (H : u s) (h : l < u), set.Ico l u = S}
theorem dense.borel_eq_generate_from_Ico_mem {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] [densely_ordered α] [no_min_order α] {s : set α} (hd : dense s) :
borel α = measurable_space.generate_from {S : set α | ∃ (l : α) (H : l s) (u : α) (H : u s) (h : l < u), set.Ico l u = S}
theorem dense.borel_eq_generate_from_Ioc_mem_aux {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {s : set α} (hd : dense s) (hbot : ∀ (x : α), is_top xx s) (hIoo : ∀ (x y : α), x < yset.Ioo x y = x s) :
borel α = measurable_space.generate_from {S : set α | ∃ (l : α) (H : l s) (u : α) (H : u s) (h : l < u), set.Ioc l u = S}
theorem dense.borel_eq_generate_from_Ioc_mem {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] [densely_ordered α] [no_max_order α] {s : set α} (hd : dense s) :
borel α = measurable_space.generate_from {S : set α | ∃ (l : α) (H : l s) (u : α) (H : u s) (h : l < u), set.Ioc l u = S}
theorem measure_theory.measure.ext_of_Ico_finite {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] {m : measurable_space α} [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [borel_space α] (μ ν : measure_theory.measure α) [measure_theory.is_finite_measure μ] (hμν : μ set.univ = ν set.univ) (h : ∀ ⦃a b : α⦄, a < bμ (set.Ico a b) = ν (set.Ico a b)) :
μ = ν

Two finite measures on a Borel space are equal if they agree on all closed-open intervals. If α is a conditionally complete linear order with no top element, measure_theory.measure..ext_of_Ico is an extensionality lemma with weaker assumptions on μ and ν.

theorem measure_theory.measure.ext_of_Ioc_finite {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] {m : measurable_space α} [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [borel_space α] (μ ν : measure_theory.measure α) [measure_theory.is_finite_measure μ] (hμν : μ set.univ = ν set.univ) (h : ∀ ⦃a b : α⦄, a < bμ (set.Ioc a b) = ν (set.Ioc a b)) :
μ = ν

Two finite measures on a Borel space are equal if they agree on all open-closed intervals. If α is a conditionally complete linear order with no top element, measure_theory.measure..ext_of_Ioc is an extensionality lemma with weaker assumptions on μ and ν.

theorem measure_theory.measure.ext_of_Ico' {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] {m : measurable_space α} [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [borel_space α] [no_max_order α] (μ ν : measure_theory.measure α) (hμ : ∀ ⦃a b : α⦄, a < bμ (set.Ico a b) ) (h : ∀ ⦃a b : α⦄, a < bμ (set.Ico a b) = ν (set.Ico a b)) :
μ = ν

Two measures which are finite on closed-open intervals are equal if the agree on all closed-open intervals.

theorem measure_theory.measure.ext_of_Ioc' {α : Type u_1} [topological_space α] {m : measurable_space α} [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [borel_space α] [no_min_order α] (μ ν : measure_theory.measure α) (hμ : ∀ ⦃a b : α⦄, a < bμ (set.Ioc a b) ) (h : ∀ ⦃a b : α⦄, a < bμ (set.Ioc a b) = ν (set.Ioc a b)) :
μ = ν

Two measures which are finite on closed-open intervals are equal if the agree on all open-closed intervals.

Two measures which are finite on closed-open intervals are equal if the agree on all closed-open intervals.

Two measures which are finite on closed-open intervals are equal if the agree on all open-closed intervals.

Two finite measures on a Borel space are equal if they agree on all left-infinite right-closed intervals.

Two finite measures on a Borel space are equal if they agree on all left-closed right-infinite intervals.

theorem measurable.max {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_closed_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : δ → α} (hf : measurable f) (hg : measurable g) :
measurable (λ (a : δ), max (f a) (g a))
theorem ae_measurable.max {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_closed_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : δ → α} {μ : measure_theory.measure δ} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) (hg : ae_measurable g μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (a : δ), max (f a) (g a)) μ
theorem measurable.min {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_closed_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : δ → α} (hf : measurable f) (hg : measurable g) :
measurable (λ (a : δ), min (f a) (g a))
theorem ae_measurable.min {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_closed_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : δ → α} {μ : measure_theory.measure δ} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) (hg : ae_measurable g μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (a : δ), min (f a) (g a)) μ
theorem continuous.measurable {α : Type u_1} {γ : Type u_3} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] {f : α → γ} (hf : continuous f) :

A continuous function from an opens_measurable_space to a borel_space is measurable.

theorem continuous.ae_measurable {α : Type u_1} {γ : Type u_3} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] {f : α → γ} (h : continuous f) (μ : measure_theory.measure α) :

A continuous function from an opens_measurable_space to a borel_space is ae-measurable.

theorem closed_embedding.measurable {α : Type u_1} {γ : Type u_3} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] {f : α → γ} (hf : closed_embedding f) :
@[protected]
theorem homeomorph.measurable {α : Type u_1} {γ : Type u_3} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] (h : α ≃ₜ γ) :
def homeomorph.to_measurable_equiv {γ : Type u_3} {γ₂ : Type u_4} [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] [topological_space γ₂] [measurable_space γ₂] [borel_space γ₂] (h : γ ≃ₜ γ₂) :
γ ≃ᵐ γ₂

A homeomorphism between two Borel spaces is a measurable equivalence.

Equations
@[simp]
theorem homeomorph.to_measurable_equiv_coe {γ : Type u_3} {γ₂ : Type u_4} [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] [topological_space γ₂] [measurable_space γ₂] [borel_space γ₂] (h : γ ≃ₜ γ₂) :
@[simp]
theorem homeomorph.to_measurable_equiv_symm_coe {γ : Type u_3} {γ₂ : Type u_4} [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] [topological_space γ₂] [measurable_space γ₂] [borel_space γ₂] (h : γ ≃ₜ γ₂) :
theorem measurable_of_continuous_on_compl_singleton {α : Type u_1} {γ : Type u_3} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] [t1_space α] {f : α → γ} (a : α) (hf : continuous_on f {a}) :
theorem continuous.measurable2 {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} {γ : Type u_3} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [topological_space β] [measurable_space β] [opens_measurable_space β] [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] [measurable_space δ] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology β] {f : δ → α} {g : δ → β} {c : α → β → γ} (h : continuous (λ (p : α × β), c p.fst p.snd)) (hf : measurable f) (hg : measurable g) :
measurable (λ (a : δ), c (f a) (g a))
theorem continuous.ae_measurable2 {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} {γ : Type u_3} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [topological_space β] [measurable_space β] [opens_measurable_space β] [topological_space γ] [measurable_space γ] [borel_space γ] [measurable_space δ] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology β] {f : δ → α} {g : δ → β} {c : α → β → γ} {μ : measure_theory.measure δ} (h : continuous (λ (p : α × β), c p.fst p.snd)) (hf : ae_measurable f μ) (hg : ae_measurable g μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (a : δ), c (f a) (g a)) μ
theorem pi_le_borel_pi {ι : Type u_1} {π : ι → Type u_2} [Π (i : ι), topological_space (π i)] [Π (i : ι), measurable_space (π i)] [∀ (i : ι), borel_space (π i)] :
measurable_space.pi borel (Π (i : ι), π i)
@[protected, instance]
def pi.borel_space_fintype_encodable {ι : Type u_1} {π : ι → Type u_2} [encodable ι] [t' : Π (i : ι), topological_space (π i)] [Π (i : ι), measurable_space (π i)] [∀ (i : ι), topological_space.second_countable_topology (π i)] [∀ (i : ι), borel_space (π i)] :
borel_space (Π (i : ι), π i)
@[protected, instance]
def pi.borel_space_fintype {ι : Type u_1} {π : ι → Type u_2} [fintype ι] [t' : Π (i : ι), topological_space (π i)] [Π (i : ι), measurable_space (π i)] [∀ (i : ι), topological_space.second_countable_topology (π i)] [∀ (i : ι), borel_space (π i)] :
borel_space (Π (i : ι), π i)
@[protected]
theorem embedding.measurable_embedding {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [topological_space β] [measurable_space β] [borel_space β] {f : α → β} (h₁ : embedding f) (h₂ : measurable_set (set.range f)) :
@[protected]
theorem closed_embedding.measurable_embedding {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [topological_space β] [measurable_space β] [borel_space β] {f : α → β} (h : closed_embedding f) :
@[protected]
theorem open_embedding.measurable_embedding {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [topological_space β] [measurable_space β] [borel_space β] {f : α → β} (h : open_embedding f) :
theorem measurable_of_Iio {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (x : α), measurable_set (f ⁻¹' set.Iio x)) :
theorem measurable_of_Ioi {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (x : α), measurable_set (f ⁻¹' set.Ioi x)) :
theorem measurable_of_Iic {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (x : α), measurable_set (f ⁻¹' set.Iic x)) :
theorem measurable_of_Ici {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (x : α), measurable_set (f ⁻¹' set.Ici x)) :
theorem measurable.is_lub {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} [encodable ι] {f : ι → δ → α} {g : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) (hg : ∀ (b : δ), is_lub {a : α | ∃ (i : ι), f i b = a} (g b)) :
theorem ae_measurable.is_lub {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} {μ : measure_theory.measure δ} [encodable ι] {f : ι → δ → α} {g : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), ae_measurable (f i) μ) (hg : ∀ᵐ (b : δ) ∂μ, is_lub {a : α | ∃ (i : ι), f i b = a} (g b)) :
theorem measurable.is_glb {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} [encodable ι] {f : ι → δ → α} {g : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) (hg : ∀ (b : δ), is_glb {a : α | ∃ (i : ι), f i b = a} (g b)) :
theorem ae_measurable.is_glb {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} {μ : measure_theory.measure δ} [encodable ι] {f : ι → δ → α} {g : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), ae_measurable (f i) μ) (hg : ∀ᵐ (b : δ) ∂μ, is_glb {a : α | ∃ (i : ι), f i b = a} (g b)) :
theorem measurable.supr_Prop {δ : Type u_5} [measurable_space δ] {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] [complete_lattice α] (p : Prop) {f : δ → α} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨆ (h : p), f b)
theorem measurable.infi_Prop {δ : Type u_5} [measurable_space δ] {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] [complete_lattice α] (p : Prop) {f : δ → α} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨅ (h : p), f b)
theorem measurable_supr {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} [encodable ι] {f : ι → δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) :
measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨆ (i : ι), f i b)
theorem ae_measurable_supr {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} {μ : measure_theory.measure δ} [encodable ι] {f : ι → δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), ae_measurable (f i) μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨆ (i : ι), f i b) μ
theorem measurable_infi {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} [encodable ι] {f : ι → δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) :
measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨅ (i : ι), f i b)
theorem ae_measurable_infi {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} {μ : measure_theory.measure δ} [encodable ι] {f : ι → δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), ae_measurable (f i) μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨅ (i : ι), f i b) μ
theorem measurable_bsupr {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} (s : set ι) {f : ι → δ → α} (hs : s.countable) (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) :
measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨆ (i : ι) (H : i s), f i b)
theorem ae_measurable_bsupr {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} {μ : measure_theory.measure δ} (s : set ι) {f : ι → δ → α} (hs : s.countable) (hf : ∀ (i : ι), ae_measurable (f i) μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨆ (i : ι) (H : i s), f i b) μ
theorem measurable_binfi {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} (s : set ι) {f : ι → δ → α} (hs : s.countable) (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) :
measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨅ (i : ι) (H : i s), f i b)
theorem ae_measurable_binfi {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} {μ : measure_theory.measure δ} (s : set ι) {f : ι → δ → α} (hs : s.countable) (hf : ∀ (i : ι), ae_measurable (f i) μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (b : δ), ⨅ (i : ι) (H : i s), f i b) μ
theorem measurable_liminf' {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} {ι' : Type u_3} {f : ι → δ → α} {u : filter ι} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) {p : ι' → Prop} {s : ι' → set ι} (hu : u.has_countable_basis p s) (hs : ∀ (i : ι'), (s i).countable) :
measurable (λ (x : δ), u.liminf (λ (i : ι), f i x))

liminf over a general filter is measurable. See measurable_liminf for the version over .

theorem measurable_limsup' {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} {ι' : Type u_3} {f : ι → δ → α} {u : filter ι} (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) {p : ι' → Prop} {s : ι' → set ι} (hu : u.has_countable_basis p s) (hs : ∀ (i : ι'), (s i).countable) :
measurable (λ (x : δ), u.limsup (λ (i : ι), f i x))

limsup over a general filter is measurable. See measurable_limsup for the version over .

theorem measurable_liminf {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ), measurable (f i)) :
measurable (λ (x : δ), filter.at_top.liminf (λ (i : ), f i x))

liminf over is measurable. See measurable_liminf' for a version with a general filter.

theorem measurable_limsup {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f : δ → α} (hf : ∀ (i : ), measurable (f i)) :
measurable (λ (x : δ), filter.at_top.limsup (λ (i : ), f i x))

limsup over is measurable. See measurable_limsup' for a version with a general filter.

theorem measurable_cSup {α : Type u_1} {δ : Type u_5} [topological_space α] [measurable_space α] [borel_space α] [measurable_space δ] [conditionally_complete_linear_order α] [order_topology α] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {ι : Type u_2} {f : ι → δ → α} {s : set ι} (hs : s.countable) (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) (bdd : ∀ (x : δ), bdd_above ((λ (i : ι), f i x) '' s)) :
measurable (λ (x : δ), Sup ((λ (i : ι), f i x) '' s))
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
def is_R_or_C.measurable_space {𝕜 : Type u_1} [is_R_or_C 𝕜] :
Equations
@[protected, instance]
def is_R_or_C.borel_space {𝕜 : Type u_1} [is_R_or_C 𝕜] :
@[protected, instance]
Equations
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
Equations
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
Equations
@[protected, instance]
@[protected, instance]
Equations
@[protected, instance]
theorem measure_eq_measure_preimage_add_measure_tsum_Ico_zpow {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] (μ : measure_theory.measure α) {f : α → ℝ≥0∞} (hf : measurable f) {s : set α} (hs : measurable_set s) {t : ℝ≥0} (ht : 1 < t) :
μ s = μ (s f ⁻¹' {0}) + μ (s f ⁻¹' {}) + ∑' (n : ), μ (s f ⁻¹' set.Ico (t ^ n) (t ^ (n + 1)))

One can cut out ℝ≥0∞ into the sets {0}, Ico (t^n) (t^(n+1)) for n : ℤ and {∞}. This gives a way to compute the measure of a set in terms of sets on which a given function f does not fluctuate by more than t.

theorem measurable_set_ball {α : Type u_1} [metric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] {x : α} {ε : } :
theorem measurable_inf_dist {α : Type u_1} [metric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] {s : set α} :
measurable (λ (x : α), metric.inf_dist x s)
theorem measurable.inf_dist {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [metric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] {f : β → α} (hf : measurable f) {s : set α} :
measurable (λ (x : β), metric.inf_dist (f x) s)
theorem measurable_inf_nndist {α : Type u_1} [metric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] {s : set α} :
measurable (λ (x : α), metric.inf_nndist x s)
theorem measurable.inf_nndist {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [metric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] {f : β → α} (hf : measurable f) {s : set α} :
measurable (λ (x : β), metric.inf_nndist (f x) s)
theorem measurable.dist {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [metric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : β → α} (hf : measurable f) (hg : measurable g) :
measurable (λ (b : β), dist (f b) (g b))
theorem measurable.nndist {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [metric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : β → α} (hf : measurable f) (hg : measurable g) :
measurable (λ (b : β), nndist (f b) (g b))
theorem tendsto_measure_cthickening {α : Type u_1} [metric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] {μ : measure_theory.measure α} {s : set α} (hs : ∃ (R : ) (H : R > 0), μ (metric.cthickening R s) ) :
filter.tendsto (λ (r : ), μ (metric.cthickening r s)) (𝓝 0) (𝓝 (μ (closure s)))

If a set has a closed thickening with finite measure, then the measure of its r-closed thickenings converges to the measure of its closure as r tends to 0.

theorem tendsto_measure_cthickening_of_is_closed {α : Type u_1} [metric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] {μ : measure_theory.measure α} {s : set α} (hs : ∃ (R : ) (H : R > 0), μ (metric.cthickening R s) ) (h's : is_closed s) :
filter.tendsto (λ (r : ), μ (metric.cthickening r s)) (𝓝 0) (𝓝 (μ s))

If a closed set has a closed thickening with finite measure, then the measure of its r-closed thickenings converges to its measure as r tends to 0.

Given a compact set in a proper space, the measure of its r-closed thickenings converges to its measure as r tends to 0.

theorem measurable_edist_right {α : Type u_1} [emetric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] {x : α} :
theorem measurable_edist_left {α : Type u_1} [emetric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] {x : α} :
measurable (λ (y : α), edist y x)
theorem measurable_inf_edist {α : Type u_1} [emetric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] {s : set α} :
measurable (λ (x : α), emetric.inf_edist x s)
theorem measurable.inf_edist {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [emetric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] {f : β → α} (hf : measurable f) {s : set α} :
measurable (λ (x : β), emetric.inf_edist (f x) s)
theorem measurable.edist {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [emetric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : β → α} (hf : measurable f) (hg : measurable g) :
measurable (λ (b : β), edist (f b) (g b))
theorem ae_measurable.edist {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [emetric_space α] [measurable_space α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] [topological_space.second_countable_topology α] {f g : β → α} {μ : measure_theory.measure β} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) (hg : ae_measurable g μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (a : β), edist (f a) (g a)) μ
theorem real.is_pi_system_Ioo_rat  :
is_pi_system (⋃ (a b : ) (h : a < b), {set.Ioo a b})

The intervals (-(n + 1), (n + 1)) form a finite spanning sets in the set of open intervals with rational endpoints for a locally finite measure μ on .

Equations
theorem measurable.real_to_nnreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → } (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (x : α), (f x).to_nnreal)
theorem ae_measurable.real_to_nnreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → } {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), (f x).to_nnreal) μ
theorem measurable.coe_nnreal_real {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (x : α), (f x))
theorem ae_measurable.coe_nnreal_real {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0} {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), (f x)) μ
theorem measurable.coe_nnreal_ennreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (x : α), (f x))
theorem ae_measurable.coe_nnreal_ennreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0} {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), (f x)) μ
theorem measurable.ennreal_of_real {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → } (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (x : α), ennreal.of_real (f x))
theorem ennreal.measurable_of_measurable_nnreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : ℝ≥0∞ → α} (h : measurable (λ (p : ℝ≥0), f p)) :

ℝ≥0∞ is measurable_equiv to ℝ≥0 ⊕ unit.

Equations
theorem ennreal.measurable_of_measurable_nnreal_prod {β : Type u_2} {γ : Type u_3} [measurable_space β] [measurable_space γ] {f : ℝ≥0∞ × β → γ} (H₁ : measurable (λ (p : ℝ≥0 × β), f ((p.fst), p.snd))) (H₂ : measurable (λ (x : β), f (, x))) :
theorem ennreal.measurable_of_measurable_nnreal_nnreal {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space β] {f : ℝ≥0∞ × ℝ≥0∞ → β} (h₁ : measurable (λ (p : ℝ≥0 × ℝ≥0), f ((p.fst), (p.snd)))) (h₂ : measurable (λ (r : ℝ≥0), f (, r))) (h₃ : measurable (λ (r : ℝ≥0), f (r, ))) :
theorem measurable.ennreal_to_nnreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0∞} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (x : α), (f x).to_nnreal)
theorem ae_measurable.ennreal_to_nnreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0∞} {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), (f x).to_nnreal) μ
theorem measurable_coe_nnreal_ennreal_iff {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0} :
measurable (λ (x : α), (f x)) measurable f
theorem measurable.ennreal_to_real {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0∞} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (x : α), (f x).to_real)
theorem ae_measurable.ennreal_to_real {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0∞} {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), (f x).to_real) μ
theorem measurable.ennreal_tsum {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {ι : Type u_2} [encodable ι] {f : ι → α → ℝ≥0∞} (h : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) :
measurable (λ (x : α), ∑' (i : ι), f i x)

note: ℝ≥0∞ can probably be generalized in a future version of this lemma.

theorem measurable.ennreal_tsum' {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {ι : Type u_2} [encodable ι] {f : ι → α → ℝ≥0∞} (h : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) :
measurable (∑' (i : ι), f i)
theorem measurable.nnreal_tsum {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {ι : Type u_2} [encodable ι] {f : ι → α → ℝ≥0} (h : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) :
measurable (λ (x : α), ∑' (i : ι), f i x)
theorem ae_measurable.ennreal_tsum {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {ι : Type u_2} [encodable ι] {f : ι → α → ℝ≥0∞} {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (h : ∀ (i : ι), ae_measurable (f i) μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), ∑' (i : ι), f i x) μ
theorem measurable.coe_real_ereal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → } (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (x : α), (f x))
theorem ae_measurable.coe_real_ereal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → } {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), (f x)) μ
theorem ereal.measurable_of_measurable_real {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : ereal → α} (h : measurable (λ (p : ), f p)) :
theorem measurable.ereal_to_real {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ereal} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (x : α), (f x).to_real)
theorem ae_measurable.ereal_to_real {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ereal} {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), (f x).to_real) μ
theorem measurable.coe_ereal_ennreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0∞} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (x : α), (f x))
theorem ae_measurable.coe_ereal_ennreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0∞} {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), (f x)) μ
theorem measurable.norm {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [normed_group α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] {f : β → α} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (a : β), f a)
theorem ae_measurable.norm {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [normed_group α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] {f : β → α} {μ : measure_theory.measure β} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (a : β), f a) μ
theorem measurable.nnnorm {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [normed_group α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] {f : β → α} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (a : β), f a∥₊)
theorem ae_measurable.nnnorm {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [normed_group α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] {f : β → α} {μ : measure_theory.measure β} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (a : β), f a∥₊) μ
theorem measurable_ennnorm {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] [normed_group α] [opens_measurable_space α] :
measurable (λ (x : α), x∥₊)
theorem measurable.ennnorm {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [normed_group α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] {f : β → α} (hf : measurable f) :
measurable (λ (a : β), f a∥₊)
theorem ae_measurable.ennnorm {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [normed_group α] [opens_measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] {f : β → α} {μ : measure_theory.measure β} (hf : ae_measurable f μ) :
ae_measurable (λ (a : β), f a∥₊) μ
theorem measurable_of_tendsto_nnreal' {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {ι : Type u_2} {f : ι → α → ℝ≥0} {g : α → ℝ≥0} (u : filter ι) [u.ne_bot] [u.is_countably_generated] (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) (lim : filter.tendsto f u (𝓝 g)) :

A limit (over a general filter) of measurable ℝ≥0 valued functions is measurable.

theorem measurable_of_tendsto_nnreal {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {f : α → ℝ≥0} {g : α → ℝ≥0} (hf : ∀ (i : ), measurable (f i)) (lim : filter.tendsto f filter.at_top (𝓝 g)) :

A sequential limit of measurable ℝ≥0 valued functions is measurable.

theorem measurable_of_tendsto_metric' {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] [metric_space β] [borel_space β] {ι : Type u_3} {f : ι → α → β} {g : α → β} (u : filter ι) [u.ne_bot] [u.is_countably_generated] (hf : ∀ (i : ι), measurable (f i)) (lim : filter.tendsto f u (𝓝 g)) :

A limit (over a general filter) of measurable functions valued in a metric space is measurable. The assumption hs can be dropped using filter.is_countably_generated.has_antitone_basis, but we don't need that case yet.

theorem measurable_of_tendsto_metric {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] [metric_space β] [borel_space β] {f : α → β} {g : α → β} (hf : ∀ (i : ), measurable (f i)) (lim : filter.tendsto f filter.at_top (𝓝 g)) :

A sequential limit of measurable functions valued in a metric space is measurable.

theorem ae_measurable_of_tendsto_metric_ae {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] [metric_space β] [borel_space β] {μ : measure_theory.measure α} {f : α → β} {g : α → β} (hf : ∀ (n : ), ae_measurable (f n) μ) (h_ae_tendsto : ∀ᵐ (x : α) ∂μ, filter.tendsto (λ (n : ), f n x) filter.at_top (𝓝 (g x))) :
theorem measurable_of_tendsto_metric_ae {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] [metric_space β] [borel_space β] {μ : measure_theory.measure α} [μ.is_complete] {f : α → β} {g : α → β} (hf : ∀ (n : ), measurable (f n)) (h_ae_tendsto : ∀ᵐ (x : α) ∂μ, filter.tendsto (λ (n : ), f n x) filter.at_top (𝓝 (g x))) :
theorem measurable_limit_of_tendsto_metric_ae {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [measurable_space α] [measurable_space β] [metric_space β] [borel_space β] {μ : measure_theory.measure α} {f : α → β} (hf : ∀ (n : ), ae_measurable (f n) μ) (h_ae_tendsto : ∀ᵐ (x : α) ∂μ, ∃ (l : β), filter.tendsto (λ (n : ), f n x) filter.at_top (𝓝 l)) :
∃ (f_lim : α → β) (hf_lim_meas : measurable f_lim), ∀ᵐ (x : α) ∂μ, filter.tendsto (λ (n : ), f n x) filter.at_top (𝓝 (f_lim x))
@[protected]
theorem continuous_linear_map.measurable {𝕜 : Type u_6} [normed_field 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] [measurable_space E] [opens_measurable_space E] {F : Type u_8} [normed_group F] [normed_space 𝕜 F] [measurable_space F] [borel_space F] (L : E →L[𝕜] F) :
theorem continuous_linear_map.measurable_comp {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {𝕜 : Type u_6} [normed_field 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] [measurable_space E] [opens_measurable_space E] {F : Type u_8} [normed_group F] [normed_space 𝕜 F] [measurable_space F] [borel_space F] (L : E →L[𝕜] F) {φ : α → E} (φ_meas : measurable φ) :
measurable (λ (a : α), L (φ a))
@[protected, instance]
noncomputable def continuous_linear_map.measurable_space {𝕜 : Type u_6} [nondiscrete_normed_field 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] {F : Type u_8} [normed_group F] [normed_space 𝕜 F] :
Equations
@[protected, instance]
def continuous_linear_map.borel_space {𝕜 : Type u_6} [nondiscrete_normed_field 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] {F : Type u_8} [normed_group F] [normed_space 𝕜 F] :
theorem continuous_linear_map.measurable_apply {𝕜 : Type u_6} [nondiscrete_normed_field 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] {F : Type u_8} [normed_group F] [normed_space 𝕜 F] [measurable_space F] [borel_space F] (x : E) :
measurable (λ (f : E →L[𝕜] F), f x)
theorem continuous_linear_map.measurable_apply' {𝕜 : Type u_6} [nondiscrete_normed_field 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] {F : Type u_8} [normed_group F] [normed_space 𝕜 F] [measurable_space E] [opens_measurable_space E] [measurable_space F] [borel_space F] :
measurable (λ (x : E) (f : E →L[𝕜] F), f x)
theorem continuous_linear_map.measurable_coe {𝕜 : Type u_6} [nondiscrete_normed_field 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] {F : Type u_8} [normed_group F] [normed_space 𝕜 F] [measurable_space F] [borel_space F] :
measurable (λ (f : E →L[𝕜] F) (x : E), f x)
theorem measurable.apply_continuous_linear_map {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {𝕜 : Type u_6} [nondiscrete_normed_field 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] [measurable_space E] [borel_space E] {F : Type u_8} [normed_group F] [normed_space 𝕜 F] {φ : α → (F →L[𝕜] E)} (hφ : measurable φ) (v : F) :
measurable (λ (a : α), (φ a) v)
theorem ae_measurable.apply_continuous_linear_map {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {𝕜 : Type u_6} [nondiscrete_normed_field 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] [measurable_space E] [borel_space E] {F : Type u_8} [normed_group F] [normed_space 𝕜 F] {φ : α → (F →L[𝕜] E)} {μ : measure_theory.measure α} (hφ : ae_measurable φ μ) (v : F) :
ae_measurable (λ (a : α), (φ a) v) μ
theorem measurable_smul_const {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {𝕜 : Type u_6} [nondiscrete_normed_field 𝕜] [complete_space 𝕜] [measurable_space 𝕜] [borel_space 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] [measurable_space E] [borel_space E] {f : α → 𝕜} {c : E} (hc : c 0) :
measurable (λ (x : α), f x c) measurable f
theorem ae_measurable_smul_const {α : Type u_1} [measurable_space α] {𝕜 : Type u_6} [nondiscrete_normed_field 𝕜] [complete_space 𝕜] [measurable_space 𝕜] [borel_space 𝕜] {E : Type u_7} [normed_group E] [normed_space 𝕜 E] [measurable_space E] [borel_space E] {f : α → 𝕜} {μ : measure_theory.measure α} {c : E} (hc : c 0) :
ae_measurable (λ (x : α), f x c) μ ae_measurable f μ