## Stream: general

### Topic: equality from scratch

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 10:29):

While looking at Kevin's great blog post about unsigned integers from scratch I thought to push myself a little bit and I've tried to do them even more from scratch, by giving up the existing eq or =.

So let's say we have an inductive xnat and an inductive xnat equality like this:

inductive xnat : Type
| zero : xnat
| succ : xnat → xnat

inductive equality (a : xnat): xnat → Prop
| refl : equality a


We're getting reflexivity for free from the type system, but we want to prove transitivity and symmetry. Let's assume we don't know anything about default parameters, universes, etc, but we know about recursors. We might write something like this:

definition equality.symm: Π (a b : xnat), Π eq1 : (equality a b), equality b a :=
λ a b : xnat,
λ eq1 : (equality a b),
equality.rec_on eq1 _


And now, the strangest thing happens, the placeholder no longer expects a proof of equality b a, suddenly equality a a suffices. This relieves us, and we proceed, almost automatically, to write (equality.refl a) instead of the placeholder, and this typechecks. Phew.

But why does it typecheck? Why suddently a proof of equality a a is good enough as a proof of equality b a. Is there something special in the type-system that makes it work?

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 10:34):

Look at the type of equality.rec_on.

protected def equality.rec_on : Π {a : xnat} {C : xnat → Sort l} {a_1 : xnat}, equality a a_1 → C a → C a_1


It says that if you want to prove a property C of a_1 : xnat given equality a a_1, it suffices to prove C a. In this case we know equality a b, so we need a property C depending on b such that C a is easy. In this case we take \lam b, equality b a as our C, so C a is equality a a which we prove by refl, and C b is equality b a which is what we wanted to show.

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 10:40):

You should be sure to look at the definition of equality.symm with pp.all true, so you can see how lean filled in the "motive" C in that rec_on application

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 10:40):

or use @equality.rec_on and fill in all the fields yourself

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 10:46):

Thanks Mario, this is making it less magical. I'm on your most recent suggestion.

#### Kevin Buzzard (Aug 07 2018 at 10:50):

Kenny Lau once said to me "Lean does not do magic", and at that time I thought that lots of things Lean did (simp, type class inference) were magic. Kenny's comment spurred me on to trying to figure out how everything was working; the point is that Lean never does magic, and in any given case you can simply look at what it did and how it did it. Figuring out how to do that really helped me to learn Lean better.

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 10:50):

Ah, of course, it makes sense. equality a b is the same as (equality a) b. So our C becomes equality a. Thanks Mario!

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 10:51):

ah, be careful: equality a would be a perfect motive to prove equality a b -> equality a b, but this is symmetry, so there is a twist

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 10:51):

So the solution is simply @equality.rec_on a (equality a) b eq1 (equality.refl a), and that makes sense.

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 10:52):

Is C the motif?

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 10:52):

yes, that's the usual terminology

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 10:53):

sometimes you get an error message talking about a motive, that's what it is referring to

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 10:56):

If you use the "flipped" motive λ b, equality b a, you have:

#check λ a b eq1, @equality.rec_on a (λ b, equality b a) b eq1 (equality.refl a)
-- : ∀ (a b : xnat), equality a b → (λ (b : xnat), equality b a) b


and notice that the conclusion there, (λ (b : xnat), equality b a) b, beta reduces to equality b a which is the desired symmetrized equality

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 11:12):

Yes you're right, I didn't notice this wasn't typechecking. This lambda abstraction is a really nice trick, I don't think I would have come up with this myself.

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 11:14):

Anyway, thank you Mario, I think this is now really clear.

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 11:14):

I'll try to work through transitivity in a similar manner

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 11:14):

the really interesting thing is that lean will automatically do that lambda abstraction trick

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 11:17):

Now, @Kevin Buzzard if this is not magic I don't know what is.

#### Kevin Buzzard (Aug 07 2018 at 11:17):

I'm not sure it's magic

#### Kevin Buzzard (Aug 07 2018 at 11:18):

Is it just matching types up?

#### Kevin Buzzard (Aug 07 2018 at 11:18):

I'm not quite following, I'm trying to get on a bus in Majorca

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 11:18):

the algorithm is very simple: the goal says equality b a, and we just replace every b with a, then we look at what we changed and replace that with a variable, let's call it x. So the motive is λ x, equality x a

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 11:20):

this produces a lambda term such that replacing x with b gives us our original goal, and replacing x with a gives us our new goal which should be easier, in this case equality a a

#### Mario Carneiro (Aug 07 2018 at 11:22):

you should try using this algorithm in the proof of transitivity to work out the right motive, then see whether you got it right by letting lean do it for you

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 11:35):

I've actually just done it in my head. It worked:

inductive xnat : Type
| zero : xnat
| succ : xnat → xnat

inductive equality (a : xnat): xnat → Prop
| refl : equality a

definition equality.trans: Π (a b c : xnat), Π eq1: (equality a b), Π eq2 : (equality b c), equality a c :=
λ a b c : xnat,
λ eq1 : (equality a b),
λ eq2 : (equality b c),
@equality.rec_on b (λ x, equality a x) c eq2 eq1


I'm sure I'll learn the algorithm one day, but I think I'll go and buy some beef now. Cooking sous vide steaks for friends this evening.

#### Adam Kurkiewicz (Aug 07 2018 at 11:39):

Thank you Mario, this was really helpful!

#### Kevin Buzzard (Aug 07 2018 at 12:29):

Warning: sometimes Lean can't generate the right motive. CS people start going on about higher order unification being undecidable when this sort of thing comes up. The problem is that if Lean can figure out that C b is supposed to be f a b c b = 0 then it can't work out if C x is supposed to be f a x c x = 0 or f a b c x = 0 or ... etc. So don't expect Lean to do miracles. See https://leanprover.github.io/theorem_proving_in_lean/interacting_with_lean.html#elaboration-hints

#### Kevin Buzzard (Aug 07 2018 at 12:30):

Remember -- Lean does not do magic. Part of the art is working out when you're asking Lean to do magic :-)

Last updated: Aug 03 2023 at 10:10 UTC