What is it about?

We explained Peter Scholze's definition of perfectoid spaces to computers, using the Lean theorem prover, mainly developed at Microsoft Research by Leonardo de Moura. Building on earlier work by many people, starting from first principles, we arrived at

-- We fix a prime number p
parameter (p : Prime)

structure perfectoid_ring (R : Type) [Huber_ring R] extends Tate_ring R : Prop :=
(complete  : is_complete_hausdorff R)
(uniform   : is_uniform R)
(ramified  :  ϖ : pseudo_uniformizer R, ϖ^p  p in R)
(Frobenius : surjective (Frob Rᵒ∕p))

/-
CLVRS ("complete locally valued ringed space") is a category
whose objects are topological spaces with a sheaf of complete topological rings
and an equivalence class of valuation on each stalk, whose support is the unique
maximal ideal of the stalk; in Wedhorn's notes this category is called 𝒱.
A perfectoid space is an object of CLVRS which is locally isomorphic to Spa(A) with
A a perfectoid ring. Note however that CLVRS is a full subcategory of the category
`PreValuedRingedSpace` of topological spaces equipped with a presheaf of topological
rings and a valuation on each stalk, so the isomorphism can be checked in
PreValuedRingedSpace instead, which is what we do.
-/

/-- Condition for an object of CLVRS to be perfectoid: every point should have an open
neighbourhood isomorphic to Spa(A) for some perfectoid ring A.-/
def is_perfectoid (X : CLVRS) : Prop :=
 x : X,  (U : opens X) (A : Huber_pair) [perfectoid_ring A],
  (x  U)  (Spa A  U)

/-- The category of perfectoid spaces.-/
def PerfectoidSpace := {X : CLVRS // is_perfectoid X}

end

You can read more explanations about how to read this code.

Starting from first principles means every definition and every lemma needed to make sense of the above lines has been explained to computers, by us or other people, and checked by computers.

Each node in the following graph is a definition or statement used directly or indirectly in the definition of perfectoid spaces, or in the proofs of the required lemmas. Each edge is a use. There are more than 3000 nodes and 30000 edges. The spatial layout and cluster coloring were computed independently by Gephi, using tools Force atlas 2 and modularity. Perfectoid definition graph Labels were added by hand. The big star is the definition of perfectoid spaces. All other nodes have a size depending on how many nodes use them. You can play with the gephi source. Note that, although the definition of perfectoid spaces is there, we are still working on making the project more beautiful, so the graph maybe be not perfectly faithful to its current state.

In order to get a legible graph, we had to remove some foundational nodes like the definition of equality, existential quantifier, or powerset (none of which is a primitive concept in dependent type theory with inductive constructions, the mathematical foundations used by Lean). These nodes were related to too many others, and prevented computation of meaningful spatial layout or modularity classes. We lost of bit of mathematics unity display, but the middle of the graph still features many different colors in the same zone, corresponding to topological algebra (groups or rings equipped with a topology or uniform structure compatible with their algebraic operations). The red class at the bottom is labelled "Filters", but it also includes quite a bit of naive set theory (somewhat orphaned by the removal of the powerset node). The word lattice should be understood in the order relation theoretic sense, not its group theoretic sense.

If you want to explore the project code interactively, you can read our installation instructions.

Chat

You're welcome to ask questions at the Zulip chat

I am a mathematician. How do I learn Lean?

You can read theorem proving in Lean. Do note however that this whole thing is all very beta at the minute. We think Tom Hales describes it best.

Useful references

Brian Conrad's learning seminar.

Scholze etale cohomology of diamonds (ArXiv).

Fontaine's text for Seminaire Bourbaki.

Torsten Wedhorn's notes on adic spaces.