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Maths in Lean: Topological, uniform and metric spaces #

The topological_space typeclass is defined in mathlib, in topology/basic.lean. There are about 18000 lines of code in topology at the time of writing, covering the basics of topological spaces, continuous functions, topological groups and rings, and infinite sums. These docs are just concerned with the contents of the topological_space.lean file.

The basic typeclass #

The topological_space typeclass is an inductive type, defined as a structure on a type α in the obvious way: there is an is_open predicate, telling us when U : set α is open, and then the axioms for a topology (pedantic note: the axiom that the empty set is open is omitted, as it follows from the fact that a union of open sets is open, applied to the empty union!).

Note that there are two ways of formalising the axiom that an arbitrary union of open sets is open: one could either ask that given a set of open sets, their union is open, or one could ask that given a function from some index set I to the set of open sets, the union of the values of the function is open. Mathlib goes for the first one, so the axiom is

is_open_sUnion : (s : set (set α)), (ts, is_open t)  is_open (⋃₀ s)

and then the index set version is a lemma:

lemma is_open_Union {f : ι  set α} (h : i, is_open (f i)) : is_open (i, f i)

Note the naming conventions, standard across mathlib, that sUnion is a union over sets and Union (with a capital U) is a union over the image of a function on an indexing set. The capital U's are to indicate a union of arbitrary size, as opposed to union, which indicates a union of two sets:

lemma is_open_union (h₁ : is_open s₁) (h₂ : is_open s₂) : is_open (s₁  s₂)

The predicate is_closed, and functions interior, closure, and frontier (closure minus interior, sometimes called boundary in mathematics) are defined, and basic properties about them are proved. For example

import topology.basic
open topological_space
variables {X : Type} [topological_space X] {U V C D Y Z : set X}

example : is_closed C  is_closed D  is_closed (C  D) := is_closed_union

example : is_open C  is_closed C := is_open_compl_iff

example : is_open U  is_closed C  is_open (U \ C) := is_open_diff

example : interior Y = Y  is_open Y := interior_eq_iff_open

example : Y  Z  interior Y  interior Z := interior_mono

example : is_open Y   x  Y,  U  Y, is_open U  x  U := is_open_iff_forall_mem_open

example : closure Y = Y  is_closed Y := closure_eq_iff_is_closed

example : closure Y = (interior Y) := closure_eq_compl_interior_compl

Filters #

In mathlib, unlike the typical approach in a mathematics textbook, extensive use is made of filters as a tool in the theory of topological spaces. Let us briefly review the notion of a filter in mathematics. A filter on a set X is a non-empty collection F of subsets of X satisfying the following two axioms:

  1. if U ∈ F and U ⊆ V, then V ∈ F; and
  2. if U, V ∈ F then there exists W ∈ F with W ⊆ U ∩ V.

Informally, one can think of F as the set of "big" subsets of X. For example, if X is a set and F is the set of subsets Y of X such that X \ Y is finite, then F is a filter. This is called the cofinite filter on X.

Note that if F is a filter that contains the empty set, then it contains all subsets of X by the first axiom. This filter is sometimes called "bottom" (we will see why a little later on). Some references demand that the empty set is not allowed to be in a filter -- Lean does not have this restriction. A filter not containing the empty set is sometimes called a "proper filter".

If X is a topological space, and x ∈ X, then the neighbourhood filter 𝓝 x of x is the set of subsets Y of X such that x is in the interior of Y. One checks easily that this is a filter (technical point: to see that this is actually the definition of 𝓝 x in mathlib, it helps to know that the set of all filters on a type is a complete lattice, partially ordered using F ≤ G iff G ⊆ F, so the definition, which involves an inf, is actually a union; also, the definition I give is not literally the definition in mathlib, but lemma nhds_sets says that their definition is the one here. Note also that this is why the filter with the most sets is called bottom!).

Why are we interested in these filters? Well, given a map f from to a topological space X, one can check that the resulting sequence f 0, f 1, f 2... tends to x ∈ X if and only if the pre-image of any element in the filter 𝓝 x is in the cofinite filter on -- this is just another way of saying that given any open set U containing x, there exists N such that for all n ≥ N, f n ∈ U. So filters provide a way of thinking about limits.

As an example, below are three limits formulated in Lean. The example uses the filters at_top and at_bot that represent "tends to " and "tends to -∞" in a type equipped with an order.

-- The limit of `2 * x` as `x` tends to `3` is `6`
example : tendsto (λ x : , 2 * x) (𝓝 3) (𝓝 6) := sorry
-- The limit of `1 / x` as `x` tends to `∞` is `0`
example : tendsto (λ x : , 1 / x) at_top (𝓝 0) := sorry
-- The limit of `x ^ 2` as `x` tends to `-∞` is `∞`
example : tendsto (λ x : , x ^ 2) at_bot at_top := sorry

The principal filter principal Y attached to a subset Y of a set X is the collection of all subsets of X that contain Y. So it's not difficult to convince yourself that the following results should be true:

example : interior Y = {x | 𝓝 x  filter.principal Y} := interior_eq_nhds

example : is_open Y   y  Y, Y  (𝓝 y).sets := is_open_iff_mem_nhds

Compactness with filters #

As a consequence of the filter-centric approach, some definitions in mathlib look rather strange to a mathematician who is not used to this approach. We have already seen a definition using filters for what it means for a sequence to tend to a limit. The definition of compactness is also written in filter-theoretic terms:

/-- A set `s` is compact if every filter that contains `s` also meets every
  neighborhood of some `a ∈ s`. -/
def compact (Y : set X) := F, F    F  principal Y  yY, F  𝓝 y  

Translated, this says that a subset Y of a topological space X is compact if for every proper filter F on X, if Y is an element of F then there's an element y of Y such that the smallest filter containing both F and the neighbourhood filter of y is not the filter of all subsets of X either. This should be thought of as being the correct general analogue of the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem, that in a compact subspace of ℝ^n, any sequence has a convergent subsequence.

One might ask why this definition of compactness has been chosen, rather than the standard one about open covers having finite subcovers. The reasons for this are in some sense computer-scientific rather than mathematical -- the issue should not be what definition is ultimately chosen (indeed the developers should feel free to choose whatever definition they like as long as it is logically equivalent to the usual one, and they might have reasons related to non-mathematical points such as running times), the issue should be how to prove that the inbuilt definition is equivalent to the one you want to use in practice. And fortunately, we have

example : compact Y 
  ( cov : set (set X), ( U  cov, is_open U)  Y  ⋃₀ cov 
     fincov  cov, set.finite fincov  Y  ⋃₀ fincov) := compact_iff_finite_subcover

so the Lean definition is equivalent to the standard one.

Hausdorff spaces #

In Lean they chose the terminology t2_space to mean Hausdorff (perhaps because it is shorter!).

class t2_space (X : Type) [topological_space X] :=
(t2 : x y, x  y  U V : set X, is_open U  is_open V  x  U  y  V  U  V = )

Of course Hausdorffness is what we need to ensure that limits are unique, but because limits are defined using filters this statements ends up reading as follows:

lemma tendsto_nhds_unique [t2_space X] {f : β  X} {l : filter β} {x y : X}
  (hl : l  ) (hx : tendsto f l (𝓝 x)) (hb : tendsto f l (𝓝 y)) : x = y

Note that actually this statement is more general than the classical statement that if a sequence tends to two limits in a Hausdorff space then the limits are the same, because it applies to any non-trivial filter on any set rather than just the cofinite filter on the natural numbers.

Bases for topologies. #

If X is a set, and S is a collection of subsets of X, then one can consider the topology "generated by" S, which (as is typical in these situations) can be defined in two ways: firstly as the intersection of all the topologies on X containing S (where we are here identifying a topology with the underlying collection of open sets), or more constructively as the sets "generated by" S using the axioms of a topological space. Unsurprisingly, it is this latter definition which is used in Lean, as the open sets are naturally an inductive type; the open sets are called generate_open S and the topology is generate_from S.

The definition of a basis for a topology in mathlib includes an axiom that the topology is generated from the basis in the sense above, which may make it hard to prove for an end user that a given set satisfies the definition directly. However again we have a theorem which reduces us to checking the two usual axioms for a basis:

example (B : set (set X)) (h_open :  V  B, is_open V)
  (h_nhds :  (x : X) (U : set X), x  U  is_open U   V  B, x  V  V  U) :
is_topological_basis B :=
is_topological_basis_of_open_of_nhds h_open h_nhds

Other things #

There are other things involving filters, there are separable, first-countable and second-countable spaces, product spaces, subspace and quotient topologies (and more generally pull-back and push-forward of a topology) and things like t1 and t3 spaces.

File organization #

The following "core" modules form a linear chain of imports. A theorem involving concepts defined in several of these files should be found in the last such file in this ordering.

The remaining directories and files, in no particular order: