# mathlibdocumentation

algebra.continued_fractions.basic

# Basic Definitions/Theorems for Continued Fractions

## Summary

We define generalised, simple, and regular continued fractions and functions to evaluate their convergents. We follow the naming conventions from Wikipedia and [wall2018analytic], Chapter 1.

## Main definitions

1. Generalised continued fractions (gcfs)
2. Simple continued fractions (scfs)
3. (Regular) continued fractions ((r)cfs)
4. Computation of convergents using the recurrence relation in convergents.
5. Computation of convergents by directly evaluating the fraction described by the gcf in convergents'.

## Implementation notes

1. The most commonly used kind of continued fractions in the literature are regular continued fractions. We hence just call them continued_fractions in the library.
2. We use sequences from data.seq to encode potentially infinite sequences.

## Tags

numerics, number theory, approximations, fractions

@[instance]

structure generalized_continued_fraction.pair  :
Type u_1Type u_1
• a : α
• b : α

We collect a partial numerator aᵢ and partial denominator bᵢ in a pair ⟨aᵢ,bᵢ⟩.

@[instance]

Make a gcf.pair printable.

Equations

Interlude: define some expected coercions.

@[instance]

Coerce a pair by elementwise coercion.

Equations
@[simp]
theorem generalized_continued_fraction.pair.coe_to_generalized_continued_fraction_pair {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [ β] {a b : α} :
{a := a, b := b} = {a := a, b := b}

structure generalized_continued_fraction  :
Type u_1Type u_1
• h : α
• s :

A generalised continued fraction (gcf) is a potentially infinite expression of the form

                            a₀
h + ---------------------------
a₁
b₀ + --------------------
a₂
b₁ + --------------
a₃
b₂ + --------
b₃ + ...


where h is called the head term or integer part, the aᵢ are called the partial numerators and the bᵢ the partial denominators of the gcf. We store the sequence of partial numerators and denominators in a sequence of generalized_continued_fraction.pairs s. For convenience, one often writes [h; (a₀, b₀), (a₁, b₁), (a₂, b₂),...].

Constructs a generalized continued fraction without fractional part.

Equations
@[instance]

Equations

Returns the sequence of partial numerators aᵢ of g.

Equations

Returns the sequence of partial denominators bᵢ of g.

Equations
def generalized_continued_fraction.terminated_at {α : Type u_1} :
→ Prop

A gcf terminated at position n if its sequence terminates at position n.

Equations
@[instance]

It is decidable whether a gcf terminated at a given position.

Equations
def generalized_continued_fraction.terminates {α : Type u_1} :
→ Prop

A gcf terminates if its sequence terminates.

Equations

Interlude: define some expected coercions.

def generalized_continued_fraction.seq.coe_to_seq {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [ β] :
has_coe (seq α) (seq β)

Coerce a sequence by elementwise coercion.

Equations
@[instance]

Coerce a gcf by elementwise coercion.

Equations
@[simp]
theorem generalized_continued_fraction.coe_to_generalized_continued_fraction {α : Type u_1} {β : Type u_2} [ β]  :
g = {h := (g.h), s := (g.s)}

A generalized continued fraction is a simple continued fraction if all partial numerators are equal to one.

                            1
h + ---------------------------
1
b₀ + --------------------
1
b₁ + --------------
1
b₂ + --------
b₃ + ...

Equations
def simple_continued_fraction (α : Type u_1) [has_one α] :
Type u_1

A simple continued fraction (scf) is a generalized continued fraction (gcf) whose partial numerators are equal to one.

                            1
h + ---------------------------
1
b₀ + --------------------
1
b₁ + --------------
1
b₂ + --------
b₃ + ...


For convenience, one often writes [h; b₀, b₁, b₂,...]. It is encoded as the subtype of gcfs that satisfy generalized_continued_fraction.is_simple_continued_fraction.

Equations
def simple_continued_fraction.of_integer {α : Type u_1} [has_one α] :

Constructs a simple continued fraction without fractional part.

Equations
@[instance]
def simple_continued_fraction.inhabited {α : Type u_1} [has_one α] :

Equations
@[instance]

Lift a scf to a gcf using the inclusion map.

Equations
def simple_continued_fraction.is_regular_continued_fraction {α : Type u_1} [has_one α] [has_zero α] [has_lt α] :
→ Prop

A simple continued fraction is a (regular) continued fraction ((r)cf) if all partial denominators bᵢ are positive, i.e. 0 < bᵢ.

Equations
def continued_fraction (α : Type u_1) [has_one α] [has_zero α] [has_lt α] :
Type u_1

A (regular) continued fraction ((r)cf) is a simple continued fraction (scf) whose partial denominators are all positive. It is the subtype of scfs that satisfy simple_continued_fraction.is_regular_continued_fraction.

Equations
def continued_fraction.of_integer {α : Type u_1} [has_one α] [has_zero α] [has_lt α] :
α →

Constructs a continued fraction without fractional part.

Equations
@[instance]
def continued_fraction.inhabited {α : Type u_1} [has_one α] [has_zero α] [has_lt α] :

Equations
@[instance]

Lift a cf to a scf using the inclusion map.

Equations
@[instance]

Lift a cf to a scf using the inclusion map.

Equations
def generalized_continued_fraction.next_numerator {K : Type u_2}  :
K → K → K → K → K

Returns the next numerator Aₙ = bₙ₋₁ * Aₙ₋₁ + aₙ₋₁ * Aₙ₋₂, where predA is Aₙ₋₁, ppredA is Aₙ₋₂, a is aₙ₋₁, and b is bₙ₋₁.

Equations
• predA = b * predA + a * ppredA
def generalized_continued_fraction.next_denominator {K : Type u_2}  :
K → K → K → K → K

Returns the next denominator Bₙ = bₙ₋₁ * Bₙ₋₁ + aₙ₋₁ * Bₙ₋₂, wherepredBisBₙ₋₁and ppredBisBₙ₋₂,aisaₙ₋₁, andbisbₙ₋₁.

Equations
• ppredB predB = bₙ * predB + aₙ * ppredB

Returns the next continuants ⟨Aₙ, Bₙ⟩ using next_numerator and next_denominator, where pred is ⟨Aₙ₋₁, Bₙ₋₁⟩, ppred is ⟨Aₙ₋₂, Bₙ₋₂⟩, a is aₙ₋₁, and b is bₙ₋₁.

Equations
• pred = {a := pred.a, b := pred.b}

Returns the continuants ⟨Aₙ₋₁, Bₙ₋₁⟩ of g.

Equations

Returns the continuants ⟨Aₙ, Bₙ⟩ of g.

Equations

Returns the numerators Aₙ of g.

Equations

Returns the denominators Bₙ of g.

Equations

Returns the convergents Aₙ / Bₙ of g, where Aₙ, Bₙ are the nth continuants of g.

Equations
def generalized_continued_fraction.convergents'_aux {K : Type u_2}  :
→ K

Returns the approximation of the fraction described by the given sequence up to a given position n. For example, convergents'_aux [(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)] 2 = 1 / (2 + 3 / 4) and convergents'_aux [(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)] 0 = 0.

Equations
• generalized_continued_fraction.convergents'_aux._match_1 _f_1 (some gp) = gp.a / (gp.b + _f_1)
• generalized_continued_fraction.convergents'_aux._match_1 _f_1 none = 0

Returns the convergents of g by evaluating the fraction described by g up to a given position n. For example, convergents' [9; (1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)] 2 = 9 + 1 / (2 + 3 / 4) and convergents' [9; (1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)] 0 = 9

Equations
theorem generalized_continued_fraction.ext_iff {α : Type u_1} {g g' : generalized_continued_fraction α} :
g = g' g.h = g'.h g.s = g'.s

Two gcfs g and g'` are equal if and only if their components are equal.

@[ext]
theorem generalized_continued_fraction.ext {α : Type u_1} {g g' : generalized_continued_fraction α} :
g.h = g'.h g.s = g'.sg = g'