mathlib3 documentation


The Dold-Kan correspondence #

The Dold-Kan correspondence states that for any abelian category A, there is an equivalence between the category of simplicial objects in A and the category of chain complexes in A (with degrees indexed by and the homological convention that the degree is decreased by the differentials).

In this file, we finish the construction of this equivalence by providing category_theory.abelian.dold_kan.equivalence which is of type simplicial_object A ≌ chain_complex A ℕ for any abelian category A. The functor simplicial_object A ⥤ chain_complex A ℕ of this equivalence is definitionally equal to normalized_Moore_complex A.

Overall strategy of the proof of the correspondence #

Before starting the implementation of the proof in Lean, the author noticed that the Dold-Kan equivalence not only applies to abelian categories, but should also hold generally for any pseudoabelian category C (i.e. a category with instances [preadditive C] [has_finite_coproducts C] and [is_idempotent_complete C]): this is category_theory.idempotents.dold_kan.equivalence.

When the alternating face map complex K[X] of a simplicial object X in an abelian is studied, it is shown that it decomposes as a direct sum of the normalized subcomplex and of the degenerate subcomplex. The crucial observation is that in this decomposition, the projection on the normalized subcomplex can be defined in each degree using simplicial operators. Then, the definition of this projection P_infty : K[X] ⟶ K[X] can be carried out for any X : simplicial_object C when C is a preadditive category.

The construction of the endomorphism P_infty is done in the files homotopies.lean, faces.lean, projections.lean and p_infty.lean. Eventually, as we would also like to show that the inclusion of the normalized Moore complex is a homotopy equivalence (cf. file homotopy_equivalence.lean), this projection P_infty needs to be homotopic to the identity. In our construction, we get this for free because P_infty is obtained by altering the identity endomorphism by null homotopic maps. More details about this aspect of the proof are in the file homotopies.lean.

When the alternating face map complex K[X] is equipped with the idempotent endomorphism P_infty, it becomes an object in karoubi (chain_complex C ℕ) which is the idempotent completion of the category chain_complex C ℕ. In functor_n.lean, we obtain this functor N₁ : simplicial_object C ⥤ karoubi (chain_complex C ℕ), which is formally extended as N₂ : karoubi (simplicial_object C) ⥤ karoubi (chain_complex C ℕ). (Here, some functors have an index which is the number of occurrences of karoubi at the source or the target.)

In functor_gamma.lean, assuming that the category C is additive, we define the functor in the other direction Γ₂ : karoubi (chain_complex C ℕ) ⥤ karoubi (simplicial_object C) as the formal extension of a functor Γ₀ : chain_complex C ℕ ⥤ simplicial_object C which is defined similarly as in Simplicial Homotopy Theory by Goerss-Jardine. In degeneracies.lean, we show that P_infty vanishes on the image of degeneracy operators, which is one of the key properties that makes it possible to contruct the isomorphism N₂Γ₂ : Γ₂ ⋙ N₂ ≅ 𝟭 (karoubi (chain_complex C ℕ)).

The rest of the proof follows the strategy in the original paper by Dold. We show that the functor N₂ reflects isomorphisms in n_reflects_iso.lean: this relies on a decomposition of the identity of X _[n] using P_infty.f n and degeneracies obtained in decomposition.lean. Then, in n_comp_gamma.lean, we construct a natural transformation Γ₂N₂.trans : N₂ ⋙ Γ₂ ⟶ 𝟭 (karoubi (simplicial_object C)). It is shown that it is an isomorphism using the fact that N₂ reflects isomorphisms, and because we can show that the composition N₂ ⟶ N₂ ⋙ Γ₂ ⋙ N₂ ⟶ N₂ is the identity (see identity_N₂). The fact that N₂ is defined as a formal direct factor makes the proof easier because we only have to compare endomorphisms of an alternating face map complex K[X] and we do not have to worry with inclusions of kernel subobjects.

In equivalence_additive.lean, we obtain the equivalence equivalence : karoubi (simplicial_object C) ≌ karoubi (chain_complex C ℕ). It is in the namespace category_theory.preadditive.dold_kan. The functors in this equivalence are named N and Γ: by definition, they are N₂ and Γ₂.

In equivalence_pseudoabelian.lean, assuming C is idempotent complete, we obtain equivalence : simplicial_object C ≌ chain_complex C ℕ in the namespace category_theory.idempotents.dold_kan. This could be roughly obtained by composing the previous equivalence with the equivalences simplicial_object C ≌ karoubi (simplicial_object C) and karoubi (chain_complex C ℕ) ≌ chain_complex C ℕ. Instead, we polish this construction in compatibility.lean by ensuring good definitional properties of the equivalence (e.g. the inverse functor is definitionallly equal to Γ₀' : chain_complex C ℕ ⥤ simplicial_object C) and showing compatibilities for the unit and counit isomorphisms.

In this file equivalence.lean, assuming the category A is abelian, we obtain equivalence : simplicial_object A ≌ chain_complex A ℕ in the namespace category_theory.abelian.dold_kan. This is obtained by replacing the functor category_theory.idempotents.dold_kan.N of the equivalence in the pseudoabelian case with the isomorphic functor normalized_Moore_complex A thanks to the isomorphism obtained in normalized.lean.

TODO: Show functoriality properties of the three equivalences above. More precisely, for example in the case of abelian categories A and B, if F : A ⥤ B is an additive functor, we can show that the functors N for A and B are compatible with the functors simplicial_object A ⥤ simplicial_object B and chain_complex A ℕ ⥤ chain_complex B ℕ induced by F. (Note that this does not require that F is an exact functor!)

TODO: Introduce the degenerate subcomplex D[X] which is generated by degenerate simplices, show that the projector P_infty corresponds to a decomposition K[X] ≅ N[X] ⊞ D[X].

TODO: dualise all of this as cosimplicial_object A ⥤ cochain_complex A ℕ. (It is unclear what is the best way to do this. The exact design may be decided when it is needed.)

References #