mathlib documentation

topology.subset_properties

Properties of subsets of topological spaces #

In this file we define various properties of subsets of a topological space, and some classes on topological spaces.

Main definitions #

We define the following properties for sets in a topological space:

For each of these definitions (except for is_clopen), we also have a class stating that the whole space satisfies that property: compact_space, irreducible_space

Furthermore, we have two more classes:

On the definition of irreducible and connected sets/spaces #

In informal mathematics, irreducible spaces are assumed to be nonempty. We formalise the predicate without that assumption as is_preirreducible. In other words, the only difference is whether the empty space counts as irreducible. There are good reasons to consider the empty space to be “too simple to be simple” See also https://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/too+simple+to+be+simple, and in particular https://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/too+simple+to+be+simple#relationship_to_biased_definitions.

def is_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (s : set α) :
Prop

A set s is compact if for every nontrivial filter f that contains s, there exists a ∈ s such that every set of f meets every neighborhood of a.

Equations
theorem is_compact.compl_mem_sets {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) {f : filter α} (hf : ∀ (a : α), a ss 𝓝 a f) :
s f

The complement to a compact set belongs to a filter f if it belongs to each filter 𝓝 a ⊓ f, a ∈ s.

theorem is_compact.compl_mem_sets_of_nhds_within {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) {f : filter α} (hf : ∀ (a : α), a s(∃ (t : set α) (H : t 𝓝[s] a), t f)) :
s f

The complement to a compact set belongs to a filter f if each a ∈ s has a neighborhood t within s such that tᶜ belongs to f.

theorem is_compact.induction_on {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) {p : set α → Prop} (he : p ) (hmono : ∀ ⦃s t : set α⦄, s tp tp s) (hunion : ∀ ⦃s t : set α⦄, p sp tp (s t)) (hnhds : ∀ (x : α), x s(∃ (t : set α) (H : t 𝓝[s] x), p t)) :
p s

If p : set α → Prop is stable under restriction and union, and each point x of a compact set s has a neighborhood t within s such that p t, then p s holds.

theorem is_compact.inter_right {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s t : set α} (hs : is_compact s) (ht : is_closed t) :

The intersection of a compact set and a closed set is a compact set.

theorem is_compact.inter_left {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s t : set α} (ht : is_compact t) (hs : is_closed s) :

The intersection of a closed set and a compact set is a compact set.

theorem compact_diff {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s t : set α} (hs : is_compact s) (ht : is_open t) :

The set difference of a compact set and an open set is a compact set.

theorem compact_of_is_closed_subset {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s t : set α} (hs : is_compact s) (ht : is_closed t) (h : t s) :

A closed subset of a compact set is a compact set.

theorem is_compact.adherence_nhdset {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s t : set α} {f : filter α} (hs : is_compact s) (hf₂ : f 𝓟 s) (ht₁ : is_open t) (ht₂ : ∀ (a : α), a scluster_pt a fa t) :
t f
theorem compact_iff_ultrafilter_le_nhds {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
is_compact s ∀ (f : ultrafilter α), f 𝓟 s(∃ (a : α) (H : a s), f 𝓝 a)
theorem is_compact.ultrafilter_le_nhds {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
is_compact s∀ (f : ultrafilter α), f 𝓟 s(∃ (a : α) (H : a s), f 𝓝 a)

Alias of compact_iff_ultrafilter_le_nhds.

theorem is_compact.elim_directed_cover {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} {ι : Type v} [hι : nonempty ι] (hs : is_compact s) (U : ι → set α) (hUo : ∀ (i : ι), is_open (U i)) (hsU : s ⋃ (i : ι), U i) (hdU : directed has_subset.subset U) :
∃ (i : ι), s U i

For every open directed cover of a compact set, there exists a single element of the cover which itself includes the set.

theorem is_compact.elim_finite_subcover {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} {ι : Type v} (hs : is_compact s) (U : ι → set α) (hUo : ∀ (i : ι), is_open (U i)) (hsU : s ⋃ (i : ι), U i) :
∃ (t : finset ι), s ⋃ (i : ι) (H : i t), U i

For every open cover of a compact set, there exists a finite subcover.

theorem is_compact.elim_nhds_subcover' {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) (U : Π (x : α), x sset α) (hU : ∀ (x : α) (H : x s), U x H 𝓝 x) :
∃ (t : finset s), s ⋃ (x : s) (H : x t), U x _
theorem is_compact.elim_nhds_subcover {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) (U : α → set α) (hU : ∀ (x : α), x sU x 𝓝 x) :
∃ (t : finset α), (∀ (x : α), x tx s) s ⋃ (x : α) (H : x t), U x
theorem is_compact.elim_finite_subfamily_closed {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} {ι : Type v} (hs : is_compact s) (Z : ι → set α) (hZc : ∀ (i : ι), is_closed (Z i)) (hsZ : (s ⋂ (i : ι), Z i) = ) :
∃ (t : finset ι), (s ⋂ (i : ι) (H : i t), Z i) =

For every family of closed sets whose intersection avoids a compact set, there exists a finite subfamily whose intersection avoids this compact set.

theorem locally_finite.finite_nonempty_inter_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {ι : Type u_1} {f : ι → set α} (hf : locally_finite f) {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) :
{i : ι | (f i s).nonempty}.finite

If s is a compact set in a topological space α and f : ι → set α is a locally finite family of sets, then f i ∩ s is nonempty only for a finitely many i.

theorem is_compact.inter_Inter_nonempty {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} {ι : Type v} (hs : is_compact s) (Z : ι → set α) (hZc : ∀ (i : ι), is_closed (Z i)) (hsZ : ∀ (t : finset ι), (s ⋂ (i : ι) (H : i t), Z i).nonempty) :
(s ⋂ (i : ι), Z i).nonempty

To show that a compact set intersects the intersection of a family of closed sets, it is sufficient to show that it intersects every finite subfamily.

theorem is_compact.nonempty_Inter_of_directed_nonempty_compact_closed {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {ι : Type v} [hι : nonempty ι] (Z : ι → set α) (hZd : directed superset Z) (hZn : ∀ (i : ι), (Z i).nonempty) (hZc : ∀ (i : ι), is_compact (Z i)) (hZcl : ∀ (i : ι), is_closed (Z i)) :
(⋂ (i : ι), Z i).nonempty

Cantor's intersection theorem: the intersection of a directed family of nonempty compact closed sets is nonempty.

theorem is_compact.nonempty_Inter_of_sequence_nonempty_compact_closed {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (Z : set α) (hZd : ∀ (i : ), Z (i + 1) Z i) (hZn : ∀ (i : ), (Z i).nonempty) (hZ0 : is_compact (Z 0)) (hZcl : ∀ (i : ), is_closed (Z i)) :
(⋂ (i : ), Z i).nonempty

Cantor's intersection theorem for sequences indexed by : the intersection of a decreasing sequence of nonempty compact closed sets is nonempty.

theorem is_compact.elim_finite_subcover_image {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] {s : set α} {b : set β} {c : β → set α} (hs : is_compact s) (hc₁ : ∀ (i : β), i bis_open (c i)) (hc₂ : s ⋃ (i : β) (H : i b), c i) :
∃ (b' : set β) (H : b' b), b'.finite s ⋃ (i : β) (H : i b'), c i

For every open cover of a compact set, there exists a finite subcover.

theorem compact_of_finite_subfamily_closed {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (h : ∀ {ι : Type u} (Z : ι → set α), (∀ (i : ι), is_closed (Z i))(s ⋂ (i : ι), Z i) = (∃ (t : finset ι), (s ⋂ (i : ι) (H : i t), Z i) = )) :

A set s is compact if for every family of closed sets whose intersection avoids s, there exists a finite subfamily whose intersection avoids s.

theorem compact_of_finite_subcover {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (h : ∀ {ι : Type u} (U : ι → set α), (∀ (i : ι), is_open (U i))(s ⋃ (i : ι), U i)(∃ (t : finset ι), s ⋃ (i : ι) (H : i t), U i)) :

A set s is compact if for every open cover of s, there exists a finite subcover.

theorem compact_iff_finite_subcover {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
is_compact s ∀ {ι : Type u} (U : ι → set α), (∀ (i : ι), is_open (U i))(s ⋃ (i : ι), U i)(∃ (t : finset ι), s ⋃ (i : ι) (H : i t), U i)

A set s is compact if and only if for every open cover of s, there exists a finite subcover.

theorem compact_iff_finite_subfamily_closed {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
is_compact s ∀ {ι : Type u} (Z : ι → set α), (∀ (i : ι), is_closed (Z i))(s ⋂ (i : ι), Z i) = (∃ (t : finset ι), (s ⋂ (i : ι) (H : i t), Z i) = )

A set s is compact if and only if for every family of closed sets whose intersection avoids s, there exists a finite subfamily whose intersection avoids s.

@[simp]
theorem compact_empty {α : Type u} [topological_space α] :
@[simp]
theorem compact_singleton {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {a : α} :
theorem set.subsingleton.is_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : s.subsingleton) :
theorem set.finite.compact_bUnion {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] {s : set β} {f : β → set α} (hs : s.finite) (hf : ∀ (i : β), i sis_compact (f i)) :
is_compact (⋃ (i : β) (H : i s), f i)
theorem finset.compact_bUnion {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] (s : finset β) {f : β → set α} (hf : ∀ (i : β), i sis_compact (f i)) :
is_compact (⋃ (i : β) (H : i s), f i)
theorem compact_accumulate {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {K : set α} (hK : ∀ (n : ), is_compact (K n)) (n : ) :
theorem compact_Union {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] {f : β → set α} [fintype β] (h : ∀ (i : β), is_compact (f i)) :
is_compact (⋃ (i : β), f i)
theorem set.finite.is_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : s.finite) :
theorem finite_of_is_compact_of_discrete {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [discrete_topology α] (s : set α) (hs : is_compact s) :
theorem is_compact.union {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s t : set α} (hs : is_compact s) (ht : is_compact t) :
theorem is_compact.insert {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) (a : α) :
def filter.cocompact (α : Type u_1) [topological_space α] :

filter.cocompact is the filter generated by complements to compact sets.

Equations
theorem filter.mem_cocompact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
s filter.cocompact α ∃ (t : set α), is_compact t t s
theorem filter.mem_cocompact' {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
s filter.cocompact α ∃ (t : set α), is_compact t s t
theorem is_compact.compl_mem_cocompact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) :
def nhds_contain_boxes {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] (s : set α) (t : set β) :
Prop

nhds_contain_boxes s t means that any open neighborhood of s × t in α × β includes a product of an open neighborhood of s by an open neighborhood of t.

Equations
theorem nhds_contain_boxes.symm {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {s : set α} {t : set β} :
theorem nhds_contain_boxes.comm {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {s : set α} {t : set β} :
theorem nhds_contain_boxes_of_singleton {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {x : α} {y : β} :
theorem nhds_contain_boxes_of_compact {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) (t : set β) (H : ∀ (x : α), x snhds_contain_boxes {x} t) :
theorem generalized_tube_lemma {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {s : set α} (hs : is_compact s) {t : set β} (ht : is_compact t) {n : set × β)} (hn : is_open n) (hp : s.prod t n) :
∃ (u : set α) (v : set β), is_open u is_open v s u t v u.prod v n

If s and t are compact sets and n is an open neighborhood of s × t, then there exist open neighborhoods u ⊇ s and v ⊇ t such that u × v ⊆ n.

@[instance]
theorem compact_univ {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [h : compact_space α] :
theorem cluster_point_of_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [compact_space α] (f : filter α) [f.ne_bot] :
∃ (x : α), cluster_pt x f
theorem compact_space_of_finite_subfamily_closed {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (h : ∀ {ι : Type u} (Z : ι → set α), (∀ (i : ι), is_closed (Z i))(⋂ (i : ι), Z i) = (∃ (t : finset ι), (⋂ (i : ι) (H : i t), Z i) = )) :
theorem is_closed.compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [compact_space α] {s : set α} (h : is_closed s) :

A compact discrete space is finite.

Equations
theorem finite_cover_nhds_interior {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [compact_space α] {U : α → set α} (hU : ∀ (x : α), U x 𝓝 x) :
∃ (t : finset α), (⋃ (x : α) (H : x t), interior (U x)) = set.univ
theorem finite_cover_nhds {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [compact_space α] {U : α → set α} (hU : ∀ (x : α), U x 𝓝 x) :
∃ (t : finset α), (⋃ (x : α) (H : x t), U x) = set.univ
theorem locally_finite.finite_nonempty_of_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {ι : Type u_1} [compact_space α] {f : ι → set α} (hf : locally_finite f) :
{i : ι | (f i).nonempty}.finite

If α is a compact space, then a locally finite family of sets of α can have only finitely many nonempty elements.

theorem locally_finite.finite_of_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {ι : Type u_1} [compact_space α] {f : ι → set α} (hf : locally_finite f) (hne : ∀ (i : ι), (f i).nonempty) :

If α is a compact space, then a locally finite family of nonempty sets of α can have only finitely many elements, set.finite version.

def locally_finite.fintype_of_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {ι : Type u_1} [compact_space α] {f : ι → set α} (hf : locally_finite f) (hne : ∀ (i : ι), (f i).nonempty) :

If α is a compact space, then a locally finite family of nonempty sets of α can have only finitely many elements, fintype version.

Equations
theorem is_compact.image_of_continuous_on {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] {s : set α} [topological_space β] {f : α → β} (hs : is_compact s) (hf : continuous_on f s) :
theorem is_compact.image {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] {s : set α} [topological_space β] {f : α → β} (hs : is_compact s) (hf : continuous f) :
theorem compact_range {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] [compact_space α] {f : α → β} (hf : continuous f) :

If X is is_compact then pr₂ : X × Y → Y is a closed map

theorem embedding.compact_iff_compact_image {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] {s : set α} [topological_space β] {f : α → β} (hf : embedding f) :
theorem compact_iff_compact_in_subtype {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {p : α → Prop} {s : set {a // p a}} :
theorem is_compact.prod {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {s : set α} {t : set β} (hs : is_compact s) (ht : is_compact t) :
theorem inducing.is_compact_iff {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {f : α → β} (hf : inducing f) {s : set α} :
@[instance]
def fintype.compact_space {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [fintype α] :

Finite topological spaces are compact.

@[instance]
def prod.compact_space {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] [compact_space α] [compact_space β] :

The product of two compact spaces is compact.

@[instance]
def sum.compact_space {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] [compact_space α] [compact_space β] :

The disjoint union of two compact spaces is compact.

theorem filter.coprod_cocompact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {β : Type u_1} [topological_space β] :

The coproduct of the cocompact filters on two topological spaces is the cocompact filter on their product.

theorem compact_pi_infinite {ι : Type u_1} {π : ι → Type u_2} [Π (i : ι), topological_space («π» i)] {s : Π (i : ι), set («π» i)} :
(∀ (i : ι), is_compact (s i))is_compact {x : Π (i : ι), «π» i | ∀ (i : ι), x i s i}

Tychonoff's theorem

theorem compact_univ_pi {ι : Type u_1} {π : ι → Type u_2} [Π (i : ι), topological_space («π» i)] {s : Π (i : ι), set («π» i)} (h : ∀ (i : ι), is_compact (s i)) :

A version of Tychonoff's theorem that uses set.pi.

@[instance]
def pi.compact_space {ι : Type u_1} {π : ι → Type u_2} [Π (i : ι), topological_space («π» i)] [∀ (i : ι), compact_space («π» i)] :
compact_space (Π (i : ι), «π» i)
@[instance]
def quot.compact_space {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {r : α → α → Prop} [compact_space α] :
compact_space (quot r)
@[instance]
@[class]
structure locally_compact_space (α : Type u_1) [topological_space α] :
Prop

There are various definitions of "locally compact space" in the literature, which agree for Hausdorff spaces but not in general. This one is the precise condition on X needed for the evaluation map C(X, Y) × X → Y to be continuous for all Y when C(X, Y) is given the compact-open topology.

Instances
theorem compact_basis_nhds {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [locally_compact_space α] (x : α) :
(𝓝 x).has_basis (λ (s : set α), s 𝓝 x is_compact s) (λ (s : set α), s)
theorem locally_compact_space_of_has_basis {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {ι : α → Type u_1} {p : Π (x : α), ι x → Prop} {s : Π (x : α), ι xset α} (h : ∀ (x : α), (𝓝 x).has_basis (p x) (s x)) (hc : ∀ (x : α) (i : ι x), p x iis_compact (s x i)) :
@[instance]
theorem exists_compact_subset {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [locally_compact_space α] {x : α} {U : set α} (hU : is_open U) (hx : x U) :
∃ (K : set α), is_compact K x interior K K U

A reformulation of the definition of locally compact space: In a locally compact space, every open set containing x has a compact subset containing x in its interior.

theorem exists_compact_mem_nhds {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [locally_compact_space α] (x : α) :
∃ (K : set α), is_compact K K 𝓝 x

In a locally compact space every point has a compact neighborhood.

theorem exists_compact_superset {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [locally_compact_space α] {K : set α} (hK : is_compact K) :
∃ (K' : set α), is_compact K' K interior K'

In a locally compact space, every compact set is contained in the interior of a compact set.

theorem ultrafilter.le_nhds_Lim {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [compact_space α] (F : ultrafilter α) :
theorem is_closed.exists_minimal_nonempty_closed_subset {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [compact_space α] {S : set α} (hS : is_closed S) (hne : S.nonempty) :
∃ (V : set α), V S V.nonempty is_closed V ∀ (V' : set α), V' VV'.nonemptyis_closed V'V' = V
@[class]
structure sigma_compact_space (α : Type u_1) [topological_space α] :
Prop

A σ-compact space is a space that is the union of a countable collection of compact subspaces. Note that a locally compact separable T₂ space need not be σ-compact. The sequence can be extracted using topological_space.compact_covering.

Instances
theorem sigma_compact_space.of_countable {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (S : set (set α)) (Hc : S.countable) (Hcomp : ∀ (s : set α), s Sis_compact s) (HU : ⋃₀S = set.univ) :
def compact_covering (α : Type u) [topological_space α] [sigma_compact_space α] :
set α

A choice of compact covering for a σ-compact space, chosen to be monotone.

Equations
theorem Union_compact_covering (α : Type u) [topological_space α] [sigma_compact_space α] :
(⋃ (n : ), compact_covering α n) = set.univ
theorem compact_covering_subset (α : Type u) [topological_space α] [sigma_compact_space α] ⦃m n : (h : m n) :
theorem locally_finite.countable_of_sigma_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [sigma_compact_space α] {ι : Type u_1} {f : ι → set α} (hf : locally_finite f) (hne : ∀ (i : ι), (f i).nonempty) :

If α is a σ-compact space, then a locally finite family of nonempty sets of α can have only countably many elements, set.countable version.

theorem countable_cover_nhds_of_sigma_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [sigma_compact_space α] {f : α → set α} (hf : ∀ (x : α), f x 𝓝 x) :
∃ (s : set α), s.countable (⋃ (x : α) (H : x s), f x) = set.univ

In a topological space with sigma compact topology, if f is a function that sends each point x to a neighborhood of x, then for some countable set s, the neighborhoods f x, x ∈ s, cover the whole space.

structure compact_exhaustion (X : Type u_1) [topological_space X] :
Type u_1

An exhaustion by compact sets of a topological space is a sequence of compact sets K n such that K n ⊆ interior (K (n + 1)) and (⋃ n, K n) = univ.

If X is a locally compact sigma compact space, then compact_exhaustion.choice X provides a choice of an exhaustion by compact sets. This choice is also available as (default : compact_exhaustion X).

theorem compact_exhaustion.is_compact {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) (n : ) :
theorem compact_exhaustion.subset_interior_succ {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) (n : ) :
K n interior (K (n + 1))
theorem compact_exhaustion.subset_succ {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) (n : ) :
K n K (n + 1)
theorem compact_exhaustion.subset {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) ⦃m n : (h : m n) :
K m K n
theorem compact_exhaustion.subset_interior {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) ⦃m n : (h : m < n) :
theorem compact_exhaustion.Union_eq {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) :
(⋃ (n : ), K n) = set.univ
theorem compact_exhaustion.exists_mem {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) (x : α) :
∃ (n : ), x K n
def compact_exhaustion.find {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) (x : α) :

The minimal n such that x ∈ K n.

Equations
theorem compact_exhaustion.mem_find {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) (x : α) :
x K (K.find x)
theorem compact_exhaustion.mem_iff_find_le {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) {x : α} {n : } :
x K n K.find x n

Prepend the empty set to a compact exhaustion K n.

Equations
@[simp]
theorem compact_exhaustion.find_shiftr {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) (x : α) :
K.shiftr.find x = K.find x + 1
theorem compact_exhaustion.mem_diff_shiftr_find {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (K : compact_exhaustion α) (x : α) :
x (K.shiftr) (K.find x + 1) \ (K.shiftr) (K.find x)

A choice of an exhaustion by compact sets of a locally compact sigma compact space.

Equations
def is_clopen {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (s : set α) :
Prop

A set is clopen if it is both open and closed.

Equations
theorem is_clopen_union {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s t : set α} (hs : is_clopen s) (ht : is_clopen t) :
theorem is_clopen_inter {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s t : set α} (hs : is_clopen s) (ht : is_clopen t) :
@[simp]
theorem is_clopen_empty {α : Type u} [topological_space α] :
@[simp]
theorem is_clopen_univ {α : Type u} [topological_space α] :
theorem is_clopen_compl {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (hs : is_clopen s) :
@[simp]
theorem is_clopen_compl_iff {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
theorem is_clopen_diff {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s t : set α} (hs : is_clopen s) (ht : is_clopen t) :
is_clopen (s \ t)
theorem is_clopen_Inter {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {β : Type u_1} [fintype β] {s : β → set α} (h : ∀ (i : β), is_clopen (s i)) :
is_clopen (⋂ (i : β), s i)
theorem is_clopen_bInter {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {β : Type u_1} {s : finset β} {f : β → set α} (h : ∀ (i : β), i sis_clopen (f i)) :
is_clopen (⋂ (i : β) (H : i s), f i)
theorem continuous_on.preimage_clopen_of_clopen {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {β : Type u_1} [topological_space β] {f : α → β} {s : set α} {t : set β} (hf : continuous_on f s) (hs : is_clopen s) (ht : is_clopen t) :
theorem is_clopen_inter_of_disjoint_cover_clopen {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {Z a b : set α} (h : is_clopen Z) (cover : Z a b) (ha : is_open a) (hb : is_open b) (hab : a b = ) :

The intersection of a disjoint covering by two open sets of a clopen set will be clopen.

def is_preirreducible {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (s : set α) :
Prop

A preirreducible set s is one where there is no non-trivial pair of disjoint opens on s.

Equations
def is_irreducible {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (s : set α) :
Prop

An irreducible set s is one that is nonempty and where there is no non-trivial pair of disjoint opens on s.

Equations
theorem is_irreducible.nonempty {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (h : is_irreducible s) :
theorem is_irreducible_singleton {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {x : α} :
theorem is_irreducible.closure {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} (h : is_irreducible s) :
theorem exists_preirreducible {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (s : set α) (H : is_preirreducible s) :
∃ (t : set α), is_preirreducible t s t ∀ (u : set α), is_preirreducible ut uu = t
def irreducible_component {α : Type u} [topological_space α] (x : α) :
set α

A maximal irreducible set that contains a given point.

Equations
theorem mem_irreducible_component {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {x : α} :
theorem eq_irreducible_component {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {x : α} {s : set α} :
@[class]
structure preirreducible_space (α : Type u) [topological_space α] :
Prop

A preirreducible space is one where there is no non-trivial pair of disjoint opens.

Instances
@[class]
structure irreducible_space (α : Type u) [topological_space α] :
Prop

An irreducible space is one that is nonempty and where there is no non-trivial pair of disjoint opens.

theorem nonempty_preirreducible_inter {α : Type u} [topological_space α] [preirreducible_space α] {s t : set α} :
is_open sis_open ts.nonemptyt.nonempty(s t).nonempty
theorem is_preirreducible.image {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {s : set α} (H : is_preirreducible s) (f : α → β) (hf : continuous_on f s) :
theorem is_irreducible.image {α : Type u} {β : Type v} [topological_space α] [topological_space β] {s : set α} (H : is_irreducible s) (f : α → β) (hf : continuous_on f s) :
theorem is_irreducible_iff_sInter {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
is_irreducible s ∀ (U : finset (set α)), (∀ (u : set α), u Uis_open u)(∀ (u : set α), u U(s u).nonempty)(s ⋂₀U).nonempty

A set s is irreducible if and only if for every finite collection of open sets all of whose members intersect s, s also intersects the intersection of the entire collection (i.e., there is an element of s contained in every member of the collection).

theorem is_preirreducible_iff_closed_union_closed {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
is_preirreducible s ∀ (z₁ z₂ : set α), is_closed z₁is_closed z₂s z₁ z₂s z₁ s z₂

A set is preirreducible if and only if for every cover by two closed sets, it is contained in one of the two covering sets.

theorem is_irreducible_iff_sUnion_closed {α : Type u} [topological_space α] {s : set α} :
is_irreducible s ∀ (Z : finset (set α)), (∀ (z : set α), z Zis_closed z)s ⋃₀Z(∃ (z : set α) (H : z Z), s z)

A set is irreducible if and only if for every cover by a finite collection of closed sets, it is contained in one of the members of the collection.