mathlib documentation

data.fun_like.embedding

Typeclass for a type F with an injective map to A ↪ B #

This typeclass is primarily for use by embeddings such as rel_embedding.

Basic usage of embedding_like #

A typical type of embedding should be declared as:

structure my_embedding (A B : Type*) [my_class A] [my_class B] :=
(to_fun : A  B)
(injective' : function.injective to_fun)
(map_op' :  {x y : A}, to_fun (my_class.op x y) = my_class.op (to_fun x) (to_fun y))

namespace my_embedding

variables (A B : Type*) [my_class A] [my_class B]

-- This instance is optional if you follow the "Embedding class" design below:
instance : embedding_like (my_embedding A B) A B :=
{ coe := my_embedding.to_fun,
  coe_injective' := λ f g h, by cases f; cases g; congr',
  injective' := my_embedding.injective' }

/-- Helper instance for when there's too many metavariables to directly
apply `fun_like.to_coe_fn`. -/
instance : has_coe_to_fun (my_embedding A B) (λ _, A  B) := my_embedding.to_fun

@[simp] lemma to_fun_eq_coe {f : my_embedding A B} : f.to_fun = (f : A  B) := rfl

@[ext] theorem ext {f g : my_embedding A B} (h :  x, f x = g x) : f = g := fun_like.ext f g h

/-- Copy of a `my_embedding` with a new `to_fun` equal to the old one. Useful to fix definitional
equalities. -/
protected def copy (f : my_embedding A B) (f' : A  B) (h : f' = f) : my_embedding A B :=
{ to_fun := f',
  injective' := h.symm  f.injective',
  map_op' := h.symm  f.map_op' }

end my_embedding

This file will then provide a has_coe_to_fun instance and various extensionality and simp lemmas.

Embedding classes extending embedding_like #

The embedding_like design provides further benefits if you put in a bit more work. The first step is to extend embedding_like to create a class of those types satisfying the axioms of your new type of morphisms. Continuing the example above:

/-- `my_embedding_class F A B` states that `F` is a type of `my_class.op`-preserving embeddings.
You should extend this class when you extend `my_embedding`. -/
class my_embedding_class (F : Type*) (A B : out_param $ Type*) [my_class A] [my_class B]
  extends embedding_like F A B :=
(map_op :  (f : F) (x y : A), f (my_class.op x y) = my_class.op (f x) (f y))

@[simp] lemma map_op {F A B : Type*} [my_class A] [my_class B] [my_embedding_class F A B]
  (f : F) (x y : A) : f (my_class.op x y) = my_class.op (f x) (f y) :=
my_embedding_class.map_op

-- You can replace `my_embedding.embedding_like` with the below instance:
instance : my_embedding_class (my_embedding A B) A B :=
{ coe := my_embedding.to_fun,
  coe_injective' := λ f g h, by cases f; cases g; congr',
  injective' := my_embedding.injective',
  map_op := my_embedding.map_op' }

-- [Insert `has_coe_to_fun`, `to_fun_eq_coe`, `ext` and `copy` here]

The second step is to add instances of your new my_embedding_class for all types extending my_embedding. Typically, you can just declare a new class analogous to my_embedding_class:

structure cooler_embedding (A B : Type*) [cool_class A] [cool_class B]
  extends my_embedding A B :=
(map_cool' : to_fun cool_class.cool = cool_class.cool)

class cooler_embedding_class (F : Type*) (A B : out_param $ Type*) [cool_class A] [cool_class B]
  extends my_embedding_class F A B :=
(map_cool :  (f : F), f cool_class.cool = cool_class.cool)

@[simp] lemma map_cool {F A B : Type*} [cool_class A] [cool_class B] [cooler_embedding_class F A B]
  (f : F) : f cool_class.cool = cool_class.cool :=
my_embedding_class.map_op

-- You can also replace `my_embedding.embedding_like` with the below instance:
instance : cool_embedding_class (cool_embedding A B) A B :=
{ coe := cool_embedding.to_fun,
  coe_injective' := λ f g h, by cases f; cases g; congr',
  injective' := my_embedding.injective',
  map_op := cool_embedding.map_op',
  map_cool := cool_embedding.map_cool' }

-- [Insert `has_coe_to_fun`, `to_fun_eq_coe`, `ext` and `copy` here]

Then any declaration taking a specific type of morphisms as parameter can instead take the class you just defined:

-- Compare with: lemma do_something (f : my_embedding A B) : sorry := sorry
lemma do_something {F : Type*} [my_embedding_class F A B] (f : F) : sorry := sorry

This means anything set up for my_embeddings will automatically work for cool_embedding_classes, and defining cool_embedding_class only takes a constant amount of effort, instead of linearly increasing the work per my_embedding-related declaration.

@[class]
structure embedding_like (F : Sort u_1) (α : out_param (Sort u_2)) (β : out_param (Sort u_3)) :
Sort (max 1 (imax u_1 u_2 u_3))

The class embedding_like F α β expresses that terms of type F have an injective coercion to injective functions α ↪ β.

Instances of this typeclass
Instances of other typeclasses for embedding_like
  • embedding_like.has_sizeof_inst
@[protected]
theorem embedding_like.injective {F : Sort u_1} {α : Sort u_2} {β : Sort u_3} [i : embedding_like F α β] (f : F) :
@[simp]
theorem embedding_like.apply_eq_iff_eq {F : Sort u_1} {α : Sort u_2} {β : Sort u_3} [i : embedding_like F α β] (f : F) {x y : α} :
f x = f y x = y
@[simp]
theorem embedding_like.comp_injective {α : Sort u_2} {β : Sort u_3} {γ : Sort u_4} {F : Sort u_1} [embedding_like F β γ] (f : α → β) (e : F) :